The annual Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Report was released today by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the news wasn't good. More than two million cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis were reported in the United States in 2016 - the highest number ever. But the CDC acknowledges that the actual numbers are far higher - that most cases of STDs are not reported to the CDC. The CDC estimates that there are actually 20 million new STDs in the U.S. each year, including other sexually transmitted diseases such as genital herpes and human papillomavirus, and half of these are among young people ages 15 to 24 years.
The report discusses the four STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) that are reported to the CDC. The 4th one is chancroid, but there were only 7 cases reported last year. Most of the new cases of STDs involved chlamydia, a bacterial infection that affects both men and women - about 1.6 million cases were reported to the CDC. Gonorrhea also increased among men and women last year, but the steepest rise was among men, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). The CDC is especially concerned about the threat of gonorrhea becoming resistant to all treatments. Untreated STDs have serious health consequences (e.g. infertility, still-birth in infants)
This report stresses the need for STD screening and treatment, especially among pregnant women (make it part of prenatal care). There is also a need for STD education, and greater use of condoms to reduce risk of STDs. The CDC has a page on STD prevention (practice abstinence, use condoms, have fewer sexual partners and exclusive relationships, get the HPV vaccine, and talk with your partner about safe sex). Excerpts from CDC:
STDs at record high, indicating urgent need for prevention
More than two million cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis were reported in the United States in 2016, the highest number ever, according to the annual Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Report released today by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
The majority of these new diagnoses (1.6 million) were cases of chlamydia. There were also 470,000 gonorrhea cases and almost 28,000 cases of primary and secondary syphilis – the most infectious stages of the disease. While all three of these STDs can be cured with antibiotics, if left undiagnosed and untreated, they can have serious health consequences, including infertility, life-threatening ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth in infants, and increased risk for HIV transmission.
While young women continue to bear the greatest burden of chlamydia (nearly half of all diagnosed infections), surges in syphilis and gonorrhea are increasingly affecting new populations.
Syphilis rates increased by nearly 18 percent overall from 2015 to 2016. The majority of these cases occur among men – especially gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) – however, there was a 36 percent increase in rates of syphilis among women, and a 28 percent increase in syphilis among newborns (congenital syphilis) during this period. More than 600 cases of congenital syphilis were reported in 2016, which has resulted in more than 40 deaths and severe health complications among newborns. The disease is preventable through routine screening and timely treatment for syphilis among pregnant women.
While gonorrhea increased among men and women in 2016, the steepest increases were seen among men (22 percent). Research suggests that a large share of new gonorrhea cases are occurring among MSM. These trends are particularly alarming in light of the growing threat of drug resistance to the last remaining recommended gonorrhea treatment.
Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) - in brown. Credit: Wikipedia