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I'm always on the lookout for probiotics (beneficial bacteria) that can somehow  suppress or dominate Staphylococcus aureus  - because that bacteria is implicated in many illnesses, including sinusitis. Some strains of S. aureus are antibiotic resistant and the cause of serious illnesses, such as MRSA  (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). However, S. aureus is also found in the microbiomes (microbial communities) of healthy people - including on the skin, nose, and gut - but it appears to reside there harmlessly in healthy people.

So finding species of bacteria that suppress or controls S. aureus is noteworthy. Researchers (from National Institute of Health and Thailand) found that in both humans and mice strains of Bacillus, especially B. subtilis, which is already added to many probiotic products, suppressed all strains of S. aureus. Interestingly, the researchers found no S. aureus in any of the gut and nasal samples from humans where Bacillus species were present.The researchers think that the Bacillus species eradicate S. aureus - in both the gut and nasal passages. So the researchers tested further using mice - they gave B. subtilis to the mice every 2 days, and it eliminated S. aureus in the guts of the mice.

But why did I title this post '"another probiotic" ? Because from research and personal experiences told to me - Lactobacillus sakei seems to have the same effect against S. aureus. Stay tuned for more research with B. subtilis and other probiotics versus S. aureus. From Science Daily:

Probiotic bacillus eliminates staphylococcus bacteria  ...continue reading "Another Probiotic That Treats Infections?"

So many of us seem to not get enough sleep, and then there are those that sleep and sleep. But .. it seems the sweet spot for sleep and our brain health (cognitive performance) is about 7 to 8 hours - at least according to a large study from Canadian researchers at Western University. People reporting typically sleeping 4 hours or less a night had the most impairments in how they performed on a variety of cognitive tests - equivalent to aging 8 years.

Reasoning, verbal skills, and overall cognition were impaired by less than 7 hours or more than 8 hours of sleep. But not short term memory. Actual age of the person made no difference on the results - everyone performed best at 7 to 8 hours of sleep. (Volunteers completed a series of 12 tests online which measured a broad range of cognitive abilities.) By the way, about half of the 10886 persons participating in the study reported typically sleeping 6.3 hours or less a night. Not enough. The good news is that just one night of sleeping a little more than the usual too little had a positive effect on cognitive abilities - thus cognitive improvement. From Science Daily:

World's largest sleep study shows too much shut-eye can be bad for your brain  ...continue reading "What Is Optimal Amount Of Sleep For Our Cognitive Processes?"

Many people take probiotics in the belief that the probiotics will help their gut microbiome (microbial community) recover after taking antibiotics. This is because antibiotics kill both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, and research shows it may take months for the gut to recover (it depends on the antibiotics taken). However, 2 studies (in both mice and healthy humans) conducted by a group of researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel challenge that belief. The researchers used both mice and healthy humans in both well-done studies. They found that taking probiotics after a week of antibiotics actually delayed recovery of the gut microbial community in humans - months longer!

In summary: As expected, taking antibiotics had a big effect on the gut microbiome - the researchers wrote "a dramatic impact"  and "profound microbial depletion" (after taking one week of standard doses of "broad-spectrum antibiotics").  However, they found large differences among the 3 groups in gut microbial recovery after antibiotics. The spontaneous recovery group (they did not take probiotics after antibiotics) showed recovery of gut microbes within 3 weeks. The fecal transplant group (of their own fecal microbes which was collected before they took antibiotics) showed gut microbial recovery within 1 day of the fecal microbial transplant. In contrast, the group taking daily  probiotics for 28 days did not show full recovery (to where they were before antibiotics) by day 28, and the gut microbial community was still out of whack (dysbiosis) even 5 months after stopping probiotics (actually even at 180 days when the study ended).

What species were in the probiotics? Eleven species commonly found in ordinary probiotics: Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, L. casei subsp. paracasei, L. planatrum, L. rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. longum sbsp. infantism, Lactococcus lactis, and Streptococcus thermophilus.  These are all considered beneficial species. But keep in mind that the human gut has hundreds of microbial species - not just the few found in probiotics.

Bottom line: Eat well after taking a course of antibiotics so as to feed beneficial microbes, and do not routinely take probiotics thinking it will help the microbes in the gut.

What was also interesting was that in the first study where healthy individuals took the probiotics (and no antibiotics), they found that the probiotic species did not colonize the gut in everyone - only some species and in some people. It's as if there is a "resistance to colonization". This resistance is perhaps what other studies show - that within one week of discontinuing probiotics, they are gone from the gut.

From Science Daily - Human gut study questions probiotic health benefits  ...continue reading "Research Suggests Not Taking Probiotics After Antibiotics"

There has been a lot of discussion in recent years about whether mammogram screening actually cuts the risk of death, with some studies finding that it does and others that it doesn't (here and here).  It's tricky to figure out because during the last few decades in which more women were screened, there have also been major improvements in breast cancer treatments.

A recent large Danish-Norwegian study came to the conclusion that breast cancer screening (mammograms) does not reduce mortality. Instead, the researchers found that there have been similar reductions in deaths from breast cancer in all women - from both unscreened women and those receiving mammograms (screening) - and this is due to better cancer treatments. From Science Daily:

Breast cancer screening does not reduce mortality

Fewer and fewer women die from breast cancer in recent years but, surprisingly, the decline is just as large in the age groups that are not screened. The decline is therefore due to better treatment and not screening for breast cancer.  ...continue reading "Study Finds Mammogram Screening Doesn’t Reduce Breast Cancer Deaths"

Is the Mediterranean style diet the future in breast cancer prevention? The following study was done in primates, but it makes sense that the results would also be true for humans: that the type of diet eaten influences the breast microbiome. This means the community of microbes that live in the breast. Yes, it's true - studies show that there is a breast microbiome and it varies between those who have breast cancer and those who don't (healthy breasts).

The study looked at macaque monkeys who were fed either a Mediterranean style diet or a Western style diet for 31 months, and then their breast tissue was examined. They found microbial differences in the breast tissue among the 2 groups, including  greater numbers (abundance) of Lactobacillus species in the primates that had been eating the Mediterranean diet.

Lactobacillus species are generally considered beneficial to humans (which is why they are added to many foods and supplements) and studies suggest they may have anti-tumor effects. Some research has found microbial differences between healthy and malignant (cancerous) human  breast tissue  - including lower Lactobacillus numbers or "abundance" in the malignant breast tissue (compared to those with benign breast lesions). Researchers say it suggests that microbial imbalances (dysbiosis) of breast tissue could be a possible driver of breast cancer .

Studies already show that a person's diet influences the gut microbiome. This study shows diet directly influences microbial communities far away from the gut - in the breasts. Unfortunately it is not stated in the study what Lactobacillus species increased in the breast tissue of primates fed a Mediterranean diet. There are many Lactobacillus species, and they are not equal in their effects (as our experiences with Lactobacillus sakei and sinusitis has shown).

Of course more studies are needed, but in the meantime - eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes (beans), nuts, and seeds. There are many other documented health benefits from a diet rich in those foods (frequently referred to as a Mediterranean diet). The diet is low in processed foods and high in fiber, and rich in "real foods". From Science Daily:

Diet affects the breast microbiome in mammals

Diet influences the composition of microbial populations in the mammary glands of nonhuman primates, researchers report October 2 in the journal Cell Reports. Specifically, a Mediterranean diet increased the abundance of probiotic bacteria previously shown to inhibit tumor growth in animals ...continue reading "Diet And The Breast Microbiome"

There's a microbial, particulate, and chemical cloud surrounding each one of us that is like the one around Pig Pen in the Peanuts comics. It's called the exposome. Researchers from the Stanford University of Medicine found that we each have our own distinct  personal cloud - which is everything we're exposed to both indoors and outdoors (pets, rain, household chemicals, air pollution, pesticides, etc.), and what we use on our bodies. It is influenced by geographical regions of where a person lives, works, and travels, as well as a person's lifestyle.

The study followed the personal exposomes of 15 individuals for varying times and over 66 geographical locations (one of the researchers was followed for more than 2 years, during which time he traveled extensively). This was done by having the individuals wear a sensitive air filtering device - which collected what was in the air (environmental airborne exposures). The results showed that each person is exposed to thousands of species (plant pollen, bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc.) and chemicals. From Science Daily:

We are bombarded by thousands of diverse species and chemicals

We are all exposed to a vast and dynamic cloud of microbes, chemicals and particulates that, if visible, might make us look something like Pig-Pen from Peanuts.

Using a re-engineered air-monitoring device, scientists from the Stanford University School of Medicine have peered into that plume and discovered a smorgasbord of biological and chemical minutia that swirl in, on and around us. Their findings show, in unprecedented detail, the variety of bacteria, viruses, chemicals, plant particulates, fungi, and even tiny microscopic animals that enter our personal space -- a bombardment known as the human "exposome."  ...continue reading "There Is A Personal Cloud Around Each Person"

Many people struggle with recurring bacterial infections - taking antibiotics seems to suppress the bacterial infection (for example, in a urinary tract infection or UTI), but the infection soon comes back. And so the cycle continues - infection, then antibiotics, then infection, more antibiotics, and so on.

Thus it was with interest that I read about a recent study that found that some pathogenic bacteria grow slowly and enter a dormant-like state (hibernation) when exposed to antibiotics so the antibiotics don't affect them (they're "persisters"). This is because antibiotics typically target a bacterial cell's ability to grow (and so do not  have an effect on bacteria in a dormant phase). Then the bacteria resume normal growth and spread when the antibiotics are gone. This study was done in cell cultures in the lab using Escherichia coli bacteria from UTIs. Future research may look for drugs to target bacteria in the dormant state. From Science Daily:

Infectious bacteria hibernate to evade antibiotics

University of Copenhagen researchers have discovered a surprising tactic of pathogenic bacteria when being attacked by antibiotics: hibernation ...continue reading "Some Bacteria Evade Antibiotics By Going Into A Dormant-Like State"

The results of a recent study suggested that walking 4 hours or more a week or 2 to 3 hours of moderate physical activity may have a (slight) protective effect of reducing stroke severity in persons who get a stroke. The study, which was conducted in Sweden, found that persons who were physically more active before their stroke and were younger in age were more likely to have a mild stroke (rather than a moderate or severe stroke). This finding was an association (didn't prove it).

But ...the majority of persons participating in the study - whether they exercised or not before the stroke - had mild strokes, and a minority in all of the groups had moderate or severe strokes. 73% of physically inactive people, 85% of those with light physical activity, and 89% of  those who had engaged in moderate physical activity before their strokes had mild strokesResearchers found that light (walking or a similar activity for at least 4 hours per week) and moderate physical activity (2 to 3 hours per week) were equally beneficial. From Medical Xpress:

People who walk just 35 minutes a day may have less severe strokes

People who participate in light to moderate physical activity, such as walking at least four hours a week or swimming two to three hours a week, may have less severe strokes than people who are physically inactive, according to a study published in the September 19, 2018, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. 

...continue reading "Could Physical Activity Reduce Stroke Severity?"

An interesting study about exposure to household cleaning products (regular cleaning products compared to eco-friendly products) and the gut microbiomes of young children was recently published. Canadian researchers found that the use of household cleaning disinfectants in the home was associated with changes in gut microbial communities in infants (more of some bacteria and less of others) - when compared to infants living in homes where eco-friendly cleaners were used. These changes occurred in a dose dependent manner (the more they were used, the bigger the changes).

Also interesting was that the more disinfectants (which are antibacterial) were used in a home, the more Lachnospiraceae was found in the infant's gut microbiota in infancy (age 3 to 4 months), and this was associated with a higher body mass of the child at 1 and 3 years, and increased odds of being overweight or obese at age 3. Use of eco-friendly products was associated with decreased odds of the child being overweight or obese at age 3. What was heavy use of household disinfectants? Daily or weekly. Just keep in mind that these are associations - not a definite cause and effect. But animal studies find similar results. And I wonder - what is frequent use of disinfectants doing to adult gut microbiomes? From Medical Xpress:

Household cleaning products may contribute to kids' overweight by altering their gut microbiota

Commonly used household cleaners could be making children overweight by altering their gut microbiota, suggests a Canadian study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). The study analyzed the gut flora of 757 infants from the general population at age 3-4 months and weight at ages 1 and 3 years, looking at exposure to disinfectants, detergents and eco-friendly products used in the home. 

...continue reading "What Are Household Disinfectants Doing To Our Gut Microbes?"

Many people have chronic low-grade inflammation, which is associated with a number of chronic diseases, and increased risk of heart disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and early death. Thus there is a lot of interest in things a person could do to lower the inflammation. A number of studies have found a person's general diet may influence chronic low-grade inflammation - either increase it or decrease it, as well as whether they smoke or not. A recent large Swedish study found that persons who ate an anti-inflammatory diet for at least 16 years had a lower risk of dying early from any cause (all cause mortality), as well as dying from cancer, or dying from heart (cardiovascular) disease.

In the study an anti-inflammatory diet was a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grain cereals, whole grain bread, coffee, tea, red wine (low to moderate levels), beer (low to moderate levels), chocolate, nuts, olive and canola oils. These foods are both anti-inflammatory and also rich in anti-oxidants. Pro-inflammatory foods were: red meat, processed red meat, offal, chips, soft drinks. In other studies a pro-inflammatory diet was also one with lots of processed foods, low fiber, and refined grains. From Science Daily:

Anti-inflammatory diet linked to reduced risk of early death

Adhering to an anti-inflammatory diet was associated with lower risks of dying from any cause, dying from cardiovascular causes, and dying from cancer in a recent Journal of Internal Medicine study. ...continue reading "Diet, Inflammation, and Health"