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Another study finding health benefits from eating yogurt - that men and women with hypertension who eat at least 2 servings or more per week of yogurt were at a lower risk of having a heart attack (myocardial infarction) and stroke. Women also had a lower risk of a revascularization procedure (such as a coronary artery bypass). The strongest association between yogurt consumption and lower risk of cardiovascular disease was among those with higher DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet scores.The DASH diet is considered a healthy diet, one rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains, beans (legumes), etc.

The major thing to keep in mind is that high blood pressure is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor. So anything that helps lower risk of heart attack or stroke is good. Note that in this large study they did not randomly assign people to different groups - so the higher yogurt intake people also tended to have a healthier lifestyle. But other studies have had similar findings to this one. For example, eating dairy products regularly is linked to lower rates of cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure, while eating yogurt regularly is linked to lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes.

Also note that the types of yogurt (whole-fat, low-fat, non-fat) eaten were not looked at, as well as the types of probiotics added to yogurts. Some research suggests that beneficial effects are from whole fat dairy products rather than low-fat dairy products - which is different than DASH diet recommendations. From Science Daily:

Eating yogurt may reduce cardiovascular disease risk

A new study in the American Journal of Hypertension, published by Oxford University Press, suggests that higher yogurt intake is associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk among hypertensive men and women. .... High blood pressure affects about one billion people worldwide but may also be a major cause of cardiovascular health problems. Higher dairy consumption has been associated with beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease-related comorbidities such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance.

For the current analyses, participants included over 55,000 women (ages 30-55) with high blood pressure from the Nurses' Health Study and 18,000 men (ages 40-75) who participated in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.

Higher intakes of yogurt were associated with a 30 percent reduction in risk of myocardial infarction among the Nurses' Health Study women and a 19 percent reduction in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study men. There were 3,300 and 2,148 total cardiovascular disease cases (myocardial infarction, stroke, and revascularization) in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, respectively. Higher yogurt intake in women was associated with a 16 percent lower risk of undergoing revascularization.

In both groups, participants consuming more than two servings a week of yogurt had an approximately 20 percent lower risks of major coronary heart disease or stroke during the follow-up period. When revascularization was added to the total cardiovascular disease outcome variable, the risk estimates were reduced for both men and women, but remained significant. Higher yogurt intake in combination with an overall heart-healthy diet was associated with greater reductions in cardiovascular disease risk among hypertensive men and women.  [Original study.]

The spice turmeric is a very popular supplement nowadays, believed to have all sorts of health benefits due to the curcumin in it (e.g. that it is anticancer, anti-Alzheimer's, anti inflammatory). And yes, studies in the lab (in vitro and in vivo) look very promising. However, a large 2017 review of existing studies also found evidence that "curcumin is unstable under physiological conditions and not readily absorbed by the body, properties that make it a poor therapeutic candidate". In other words, the hype for curcumin supplements is not matching the reality, especially or probably because it is so poorly absorbed by humans. But researchers keep trying. And keep in mind that turmeric has other compounds in it also - it is not just curcumin and nothing else.

A "double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial" is the best evidence for something being effective. That means a study where people are randomly assigned to groups, no one actually knows who is getting what, and there is a placebo group that is getting a "sham" treatment. A recent study did exactly that in testing a new formulation of curcumin (Theracurmin) that was easily absorbed (bioavailable) by the persons participating in the study.

And yes - they found health benefits, specifically improvements in memory and attention in those persons taking the curcumin supplements over a 18 month period (as compared to those taking a placebo and whose memory and attention deteriorated over that time). The subjects (who were between 50 and 90 years of age) did not have dementia at the start of the study, but were showing signs of "normal aging" or had mild neurocognitive disorder. Brain scans (before and after treatment) suggested that the behavioral and cognitive benefits from curcumin were associated with "decreases in plaque and tangle accumulation in brain regions moduating mood and memory" - so it had anti-inflammatory and/or anti-amyloid brain effects.

So...  Stay tuned. Meanwhile, perhaps frequent eating of foods containing turmeric may also have beneficial effects, as some studies suggest. From Science Daily:

Curcumin improves memory and mood

Lovers of Indian food, give yourselves a second helping: Daily consumption of a certain form of curcumin -- the substance that gives Indian curry its bright color -- improved memory and mood in people with mild, age-related memory loss, according to the results of a study conducted by UCLA researchers. .... Found in turmeric, curcumin has previously been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in lab studies. It also has been suggested as a possible reason that senior citizens in India, where curcumin is a dietary staple, have a lower prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and better cognitive performance.

The double-blind, placebo-controlled study involved 40 adults between the ages of 50 and 90 years who had mild memory complaints. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo or 90 milligrams of curcumin twice daily for 18 months. All 40 subjects received standardized cognitive assessments at the start of the study and at six-month intervals, and monitoring of curcumin levels in their blood at the start of the study and after 18 months. Thirty of the volunteers underwent positron emission tomography, or PET scans, to determine the levels of amyloid and tau in their brains at the start of the study and after 18 months.

The people who took curcumin experienced significant improvements in their memory and attention abilities, while the subjects who received placebo did not, Small said. In memory tests, the people taking curcumin improved by 28 percent over the 18 months. Those taking curcumin also had mild improvements in mood, and their brain PET scans showed significantly less amyloid and tau signals in the amygdala and hypothalamus than those who took placebos. The amygdala and hypothalamus are regions of the brain that control several memory and emotional functions. [Original study.]

There have been many posts on this blog about diet, fiber, microbes, and the association of diet with various diseases, such as cancer. A recent journal article by M. Song and A. Chan reviewed studies that looked at the link between diet, gut microbes (the gut microbiota or gut microbiome), and colorectal cancer (what we typically call colon cancer).

In summary, research from the last 20 years has found that diet and colorectal cancer (CRC) go hand in hand, and that diet determines the microbes (microbiota) living in the gut - that is, what you feed the microbes determines what microbes will live and thrive in the gut. Also, certain microbes in the gut are linked to inflammation and cancer formation, and others to its prevention. In other words, there is potential to prevent colorectal cancer with certain diets, and to increase the odds of colorectal cancer with other diets.

What are main dietary factors linked to colorectal cancer? Western diet (lots of processed foods, red and processed meat, low in fiber, refined grains), low levels of dietary fiber, low intake of omega-3 fatty acids from seafood (or fish oil), and obesity. The researchers point out that a Western diet is associated with gut dysbiosis (microbial imbalance), loss of gut barrier integrity, and increased levels of inflammation. What should one do? Basically think to yourself: "I need to feed the beneficial microbes in my gut, so I need to eat lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and seafood (omega-3 fatty acids)" - this is what the researchers call a "prudent pattern diet". And try to maintain a normal weight. Some excerpts from Current Colorectal Cancer Reports:

Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention: a Review of Potential Mechanisms and Promising Targets for Future Research

AbstractDiet plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. Emerging data have implicated the gut microbiota in colorectal cancer. Diet is a major determinant for the gut microbial structure and function. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that alterations in gut microbes and their metabolites may contribute to the influence of diet on the development of colorectal cancer.We review several major dietary factors that have been linked to gut microbiota and colorectal cancer, including major dietary patterns, fiber, red meat and sulfur, and obesity

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the world. Over the past few decades, numerous epidemiologic studies have identified a range of dietary factors that may potentially promote or prevent CRC. Likewise, increasing evidence has implicated the gut microbiota in CRC development. Biological plausibility is supported by habitation of numerous gut microbes in the large intestine and the functional importance of the gut microbiota in maintenance of the gut barrier integrity and immune homeostasis, the disruptions of which are among the most important mechanisms in colorectal carcinogenesis. Given the critical role of diet in the configurations of gut microbial communities and production of bacterial metabolites, it has been proposed that diet may influence CRC risk through modulation of the gut microbial composition and metabolism that in turn shape the immune response during tumor development.

Although gut bacterial abundance may respond rapidly to extreme changes in diet, predominant microbial community membership is primarily determined by long-term diet, and substantial inter-individual variation persists despite short-term dietary change. .... Thus, this review focuses on the dietary factors that have strong mechanistic support, including dietary pattern, fiber, red meat and sulfur, and omega-3 fatty acid. Given the close link between diet and obesity and the predominant role of obesity in CRC as well as the substantial data linking the gut microbiome to obesity, we also include obesity at the end of the review.

DIETARY PATTERNS: Convincing data indicate that a “Western dietary pattern,” characterized by high intake of red or processed meat, sweets, and refined grains, is associated with higher risk of colorectal neoplasia; in contrast, diets that are rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains (“prudent pattern diet”) are associated with lower risk of CRC. Western diets are associated with gut dysbiosis (microbial imbalance), loss of gut barrier integrity, increased levels of inflammatory proteins, and dysregulated immune signatures.

A potential role of the gut microbiota in mediating the dietary associations with CRC risk is suggested by the dramatic difference of the gut microbial structures between populations consuming different diets. Rural Africans, whose diet is high in fiber and low in fat, have a strikingly different gut microbial composition than urban Europeans or African Americans consuming a Western diet, which parallels the lower CRC rates in Africa than Western countries. For example, the African gut microbiota is characterized by a predominance of Prevotella genus that are involved in starch, hemicellulose, and xylan degradation, whereas the American microbiota is predominated by Bacteroides genus with a higher abundance of potentially pathogenic proteobacteria, such as Escherichia and Acinetobacter. .... Moreover, a crossover study indicates that switching African Americans to a high-fiber, low-fat diet for 2 weeks increases production of SCFAs, suppresses secondary bile acid synthesis, and reduces colonic mucosal inflammation and proliferation biomarkers of cancer risk.

Fiber: Numerous prospective studies have linked higher fiber intake to lower risk of CRC. The most recent expert report from the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research in 2011 concludes that evidence that consumption of foods containing dietary fiber protects against CRC is convincing. Besides systemic benefits for insulin sensitivity and metabolic regulation, which have been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis, fiber possesses gut-specific activities, such as diluting fecal content, decreasing transit time, and increasing stool weight, thereby minimizing exposure to intestinal carcinogens.

Moreover, soluble fiber can be fermented by bacteria in the lumen of the colon into SCFAs [short-chain fatty acids], including butyrate, acetate,and propionate. Higher fiber intake has been shown to enrich butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut, such as Clostridium, Anaerostipes, Eubacterium, and Roseburia species, and increase production of SCFAs. SCFAs have been suggested as the key metabolites linking the gut microbes to various health conditions, especially CRC

Red Meat and Sulfur: There is convincing evidence that red and processed meats are associated with increased risk of CRC. Recently, the Int. Agency for Research on Cancer has classified processed meat as a carcinogen to humans. Mechanisms underlying the pro-cancer effects of red or processed meats include heme iron, N-nitroso compounds, or heterocyclic amines, and hydrogen sulfide production. Hydrogen sulfide has been implicated in inflammatory disorders associated with risk of CRC, such as ulcerative colitis, and directly with CRC.

Omega-3 Fatty Acid: Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, including eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid, possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity and may protect against CRC. Fish oil, a rich source of omega-3 fatty acid, is the most popular natural product used by US adults. Substantial data support the beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acid on CRC prevention and treatment.

Dietary fat composition is a major driver of the gut microbial community structure. Compared to other types of fat, omega-3 fatty acid have been associated with higher intestinal microbiota diversity and omega-3 fatty acid-rich diet ameliorates the gut dysbiosis induced by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid or antibiotics.

Obesity: Since the 1970–1980s, the prevalence of obesity has markedly increased worldwide. The obesity epidemic is believed to be largely driven by global westernization characterized by overconsumption of easily accessible and energy-dense food and a sedentary lifestyle. Obesity is an established risk factor for CRC and several other cancers. Possible mechanisms include increased insulin levels and bioavailability of insulin-like growth factor 1, altered secretion of adipokines and inflammatory cytokines, and changes in sex hormone levels.

Prostate cancer is something that men worry about, especially because it is the most common cancer in men, and because it can take several forms. On one hand, a tumor can be "indolent" or so slow growing that it just needs to be monitored, or sometimes it can be very aggressive and even lead to death. That's why the possibility of a dietary pattern (what a person eats) having an effect on the cancer's progression or aggressiveness is very exciting - if true, it would be something people could do to improve their prostate cancer outcome. Or perhaps even prevent it in the first place. Studies up to this point have been mixed, with no clear results.

A recent large study conducted in Spain found that those men with prostate cancer who had a high adherence to a Mediterranean diet had a lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer, as compared to those following a typical Western diet (large amounts of fatty dairy products, refined grains, processed meat, caloric beverages, sweets, fast food, and sauces) or a Prudent diet (low-fat dairy products, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and juices). A Mediterranean dietary pattern is rich in fruits and vegetables, and also fish, legumes, boiled potatoes, olives and olive oil, vegetable oils, and a low intake of juices.

The researchers also discussed that there are many similarities with breast cancer and prostate cancer, including risk factors. They found in an earlier study in Spain that eating a Western diet is associated with breast cancer risk, the Prudent diet is not associated with breast cancer, and the Mediterranean diet seems to be protective for breast cancer. From Medical Xpress:

A more complete Mediterranean diet may protect against aggressive prostate cancer

In a new study published in The Journal of Urology, researchers determined that men who followed a Mediterranean diet, rich in fish, boiled potatoes, whole fruits, vegetables, legumes, and olive oil, and low consumption of juices had lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PC) than those who followed other dietary patterns like Prudent or Western diets. ..."Our results show that a diet oriented towards the prevention of aggressive tumors in the prostate should probably include important elements of the Mediterranean diet such as fish, legumes, and olive oil, and suggest that a high intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains might not be enough."

The authors explored the relationship between the risk of having PC and dietary patterns as part of the MCC-Spain study, a Spanish case-control study that involved 733 patients with histologically confirmed PC and 1,229 healthy men with a mean age of 66 years from seven Spanish regions. Anthropometric, epidemiologic, and dietary data were collected.

Adherence to the three dietary patterns of Western, Prudent, and Mediterranean, which characterize the dietary habits of the Spanish population, was evaluated, The Western [dietary] pattern includes consumption of large amounts of fatty dairy products, refined grains, processed meat, caloric beverages, sweets, fast food, and sauces. The Prudent pattern involves consumption of low-fat dairy products, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and juices. Finally, the Mediterranean pattern consists of high consumption of fish, boiled potatoes, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and olive oil, and low consumption of juices. The diets were graded according to the degree of adherence to each pattern and assigned to four quartiles from lower to higher adherence within each pattern.

Only a high adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern appeared to be associated with a lower risk of aggressive PC. Prudent and Mediterranean dietary patterns showed different effects in low and high grade tumors. 

PC was assessed using Gleason scores of tumor aggressiveness (<6 or ?6) and clinical stage (cT1b to cT4). A Gleason score of <6 typically indicates a less aggressive tumor with generally good prognosis. Lower clinical stage (cT1-cT2a) indicates a tumor that has not spread. Results indicated that for more aggressive and more extensive tumors (Gleason >6 and stages cT2b to cT4), only high adherence to the Mediterranean diet showed a statistically significant protective effect. All other dietary patterns and tumor characteristics showed little or no correlation and did not achieve statistical significance. [Original study.]

For those who need convincing that lifestyle can contribute to development of cancer or its prevention, new medical research has once again supported the importance of lifestyle choices. A report from Australian researchers (with similar findings as a study in the US) stated: an estimated 38% of cancer deaths and 33% of cancer diagnoses could have been prevented with healthy lifestyle choices.

And what were the lifestyle choices that are linked to cancer?  The researchers list 20 separate things (in 8 broad groups) that are known to cause or are linked to cancer. They are: tobacco smoke (smoking or second-hand smoke), dietary factors (low-intake of fruit, non-starchy vegetables, and dietary fiber; and high intake of red and processed meat), overweight/obesity, alcohol, physical inactivity, solar ultraviolet radiation, certain infections (they list 7 infections, such as human papillomavirus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C), and reproductive factors (lack of breastfeeding, menopausal hormone therapy use, combined oral contraceptive use). Note that they found that the #1 most important lifestyle factor is tobacco smoke - and it accounted for about 23% of all preventable cancer deaths in Australia. From Medscape:

One Third of Cancer Deaths Could Be Prevented by Lifestyle

As we head into the festive season, many are looking forward to the tradition of "Eat, drink, and be merry." But as another research paper shows that more than a third of cancer deaths could be prevented by lifestyle, maybe a qualifier should be added:"celebration in moderation." The latest statistics come from Australia, where researchers note that 44,004 cancer deaths occurred in 2013. But an estimated 38% of these deaths and 33% of cancer diagnoses could have been prevented with healthy lifestyle choices, says a research team led by Louise Wilson, MEpi, at the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute and the University of Queensland, Brisbane.

These cancer diagnoses and deaths were seen in Australians of all ages and are directly attributable to 20 known modifiable risk factors within eight categories that are established causes of cancer, the study authors say. The report is published in the February 2018 issue of the International Journal of Cancer.

Smoking was the leading cause of preventable cancer death in Australia in 2013 and accounted for 23% of all cancer deaths. ...Three other categories of modifiable risk factors — poor diet, overweight/obesity, and infections — accounted for 5% of cancer deaths each. In a fifth category, alcohol-related cancer accounted for 2.4% of deaths. Physical inactivity factors were responsible for 0.8% of cancer deaths, overexposure to ultraviolet radiation for 3.2% of cancer deaths, and, in the eighth category, reproductive or hormonal factors were linked to 0.4% of cancer deaths.

In the diet category, risk factors include low intake of fruit, nonstarchy vegetables, and dietary fiber and high intake of red and processed meat. In the infection category, seven cancer-causing agents, including human papillomavirus (associated with cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, oral cavity, and oropharynx) and Helicobacter pylori (noncardia stomach cancer), are included. Lack of breastfeeding, use of menopausal hormone therapy, and use of combined oral contraceptive use (breast and cervical cancer) are listed as preventable risk factors in the reproductive category.

These findings are in keeping with other research on the role of modifiable lifestyle-related risk factors in cancer prevention. As previously reported by Medscape Medical News, results from a large cohort study in the United States led researchers to conclude that 20% to 40% of cancer cases and related mortality could be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and exercising regularly. In another report, results from a national online survey undertaken by the American Society of Clinical Oncology showed that, like their Australian counterparts, most US adults don't know alcohol and obesity are major risk factors for cancer[Original study.]

A dividing lung cancer cell. Lung cancer is associated with smoking. Credit: National Institute of Health (NIH). 

 

It looks like pesticide residues are increasing in our food. Not good, especially since we don't know what chronic low-levels of these residues do to us. And remember, we're exposed to mixtures of these residues daily, not just one at a time. The only way to reduce exposure to these pesticide residues, including the controversial and widely used pesticides 2,4-D and glyphosate, is by eating organic foods. [See all posts on PESTICIDES for more on their effects and concerns.] Excerpts from an article by journalist Carey Gillam in Environmental Health News:

Hold the plum pudding: US food sampling shows troubling pesticide residues

New data released recently by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) shows a rise in the occurrence of pesticide residues detected in thousands of samples of commonly consumed foods. Documents obtained from the agency through Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests also show the government is bracing for more, with the use of at least one controversial weed killing chemical – the herbicide known as 2,4-D - expected to triple in the next year.

And buried deep within the FDA's latest annual pesticide residue report is data showing that a controversial insecticide called chlorpyrifos, which is marketed by Dow Chemical and is banned from household use due to known dangers, was the fourth-most prevalent pesticide found in foods out of 207 pesticides detected.

Overall, about 50 percent of domestic food and 43 percent of imported foods sampled showed pesticide residues in the FDA's testing for fiscal year 2015, which is the period covered in the new report. That is up from about 37 percent of domestic and 28 percent of imported foods found with residues in 2010, and up from 38.5 percent and 39 percent, respectively, found by FDA a decade earlier in 2005.

FDA sampling has been shrinking over the years, dropping about 25 percent from a decade ago from more than 7,900 samples to 5,989 samples tested in its latest report. The U.S. Department of Agriculture also does annual pesticide residue testing, but looks at more than 10,000 samples. The latest USDA residue report, which also was for the 2015 time period, found about 85 percent of samples contained pesticide residues.

Notably, samples of fruits and vegetables – considered healthy food choices – showed the highest frequency of pesticide residues in the new FDA report. Roughly 82 percent of domestic American fruits and 62 percent of domestic vegetables carried residues of weed killers, insecticides and other pesticides commonly used by farmers.

Looking at imported fruits and vegetables, the FDA found that roughly 51 percent of imported fruits and 47 percent of imported vegetables carried residues. Overall, the imported foods had more illegally high levels of pesticide residues than did domestic foods sampled. More than 9 percent of both imported fruits and vegetables were considered in violation of legal pesticide residue limits compared to only 2.2 percent of American-grown fruits and 3.8 percent of domestic vegetables. 

The Environmental Protection Agency sets legal limits, referred to as "maximum residue limits" (MRLs) for pesticide residues on foods. The FDA and USDA routinely assure consumers that if residues are below the established MRLs, they are both legal and safe. But many scientists and medical professionals disagree, saying regulatory methods are outdated and too dependent on input from the chemical industry players selling the pesticides. 

Separate from the FDA's published residue report, internal FDA documents show the agency working to get a handle on the residues of two widely used herbicides - glyphosate and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)An internal memo dated in May of this year obtained through FOIA states that 2,4-D use is "expected to triple in the coming year" because of new genetically engineered crops designed to tolerate direct application of the herbicideNeither FDA nor USDA has routinely tested for glyphosate despite the fact it is the world's most widely used herbicide, and testing by academics, consumer groups and other countries has shown residues of the weed killer in food.

Vitamin D supplements are incredibly popular, but whether vitamin D supplements should be taken during pregnancy and at what dose is still debated, and studies have had conflicting results. Now a review by Canadian researchers of 43 studies of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy found that there is "insufficient evidence to guide recommendations during pregnancy". They said that overall the studies were small or of low quality -  and the "available data did not provide evidence of benefit" from vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.

They found that vitamin D supplementation slightly increased the mean (average) birth weight by 2 ounces (58.33 g), reduced the risk of small for gestational age births, and reduced the risk of the child wheezing at age 3. There was no effect on preterm birth, and there was a lack of evidence of benefits of prenatal vitamin D supplementation for maternal health conditions (e.g. gestational diabetes) during pregnancy.

Currently recommendations regarding vitamin D supplementation vary widely among medical and professional organizations, and WHO (World Health Organization) currently recommends against routine prenatal vitamin D supplementation. Luckily there are a number of studies going on right now on this issue that may help answer this question - how much vitamin D, if any, should be taken during pregnancy? From Medical Xpress:

Insufficient evidence to guide recommendations on vitamin D in pregnancy

There is currently insufficient evidence to guide recommendations on the use of vitamin D supplements in pregnancy, conclude researchers in The BMJ today. A team led by Dr Daniel Roth at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, say some of the most critical questions about the effectiveness of taking vitamin D supplements during pregnancy "will probably remain unanswered in the foreseeable future."

Vitamin D helps maintain calcium levels in the body to keep bones, teeth and muscles healthy. Numerous studies suggest that taking vitamin D supplements may also help protect against heart disease, cancer, respiratory infections and asthma - as well as conditions related to pregnancy, such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. But results are conflicting and recommendations vary widely among medical and professional organisations.

So Dr Roth and his team set out to assess the current and future state of the evidence on vitamin D supplements during pregnancy. They analysed results from 43 randomised controlled trials involving 8,406 women, to estimate the effects of taking vitamin D supplements during pregnancy on 11 maternal and 27 child outcomes.... The results show that taking supplements during pregnancy increased vitamin D levels in both the mother's bloodstream and umbilical cord blood, but the researchers did not consistently find that higher doses of vitamin D led to healthier women and babies.

Overall, vitamin D increased average birth weight by 58 g and reduced the risk of having a small baby, but more detailed analyses weakened the authors' confidence in these findings. There was a lack of evidence of benefits of vitamin D supplements for maternal health conditions related to pregnancy, no effect on other birth outcomes of public health importance, such as premature birth, and scant evidence on safety outcomes.  [Original study.]

An interesting possibility - that taking supplements of  a type of vitamin E known as gamma tocopherol may reduce the inflammation of the airways common in asthma patients – eosinophilic inflammation.

Note that these findings were from a preliminary study of 15 people with mild asthma, done by researchers at the Univ. of North Carolina. Now larger and longer studies need to be done, especially to make sure that side-effects and an increased risk for hemorrhagic stroke won't occur with gamma tocopherol, as it does for the other form of vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) commonly found in supplements. From Medical Xpress:

Can asthma be controlled with a vitamin supplement?

The shortness of breath experienced by the nearly 26 million Americans who suffer from asthma is usually the result of inflammation of the airways. People with asthma typically use albuterol for acute attacks and inhaled steroids to limit chronic inflammation. Both medications come with side effects. But what if it was possible to keep asthma under control by changing one's diet or taking a vitamin supplement? It may happen sooner than you think.

Preliminary research results from the UNC School of Medicine indicate that a type of vitamin E known as gamma tocopherol may reduce eosinophilic inflammation – a kind of airway inflammation common in asthma patients. The results were published in the Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology.

"We started looking into vitamin E because epidemiologic data suggested that people with high amounts of vitamin E in their diet were less prone to asthma and allergic disease," said Michelle Hernandez, MD, professor of pediatrics and senior author of the study.  There are several different isoforms of vitamin E. The type commonly found in vitamin supplements – alpha tocopherol – has been studied previously, but the results suggested that alpha tocopherol was not particularly effective. Even worse, the alpha isoform seemed to be associated with an increased risk for hemorrhagic stroke.

So UNC researchers took a different tack and asked whether the kind of vitamin E being used might have an effect on the outcome. They began looking more closely at gamma tocopherol, the type of vitamin E commonly found in a diet rich in nuts and nut oil. .... "While the alpha isoform does have antioxidant activities, gamma tocopherol has both an antioxidant and a very unique anti-inflammatory action as well," she said "That anti-inflammatory effect is what we think made the difference in this study."

Participants in the study were randomized into two groups that received either gamma tocopherol supplement or a placebo for two weeks. At the end of that period, they were asked to cough up sputum..... After a three week "washout period" where they took nothing, subjects were placed in the other group: if they took the supplement for the first two weeks, they took a placebo for the second period.

"The advantage of a cross-over design like this is that we are able to compare the subjects to themselves," said Burbank. "And what we found is that when people were taking the vitamin E supplement, they had less eosinophilic inflammation." In addition to decreased inflammation, those who were taking vitamin E were also found to have lower levels of proteins called mucins, which affect the stickiness of mucus. Mucins are often elevated in asthmatics.

A recent study looked at 2 specific antioxidant levels in a variety of mushroom species. Mushrooms are an excellent source of nutrients, such as riboflavin and other B vitamins, selenium, copper, potassium, dietary fiber, as well as high levels of antioxidants ergothioneine (ERGO) and glutathione (GSH). The study found the highest levels of these antioxidants in yellow oyster and porcini mushrooms.

Ergothioneine (ERGO), which is found throughout the human body, is a critical antioxidant that acts with other antioxidants to protect against oxidative stress in the mitochondria (in our cells). What foods are good sources of ERGO? Mushrooms have the highest levels, but other foods with high ERGO content include red beans, black beans, kidney beans, oat bran, liver, and king crab.

Glutathione (GSH) is produced by the body and found in every cell - thus the major antioxidant within cells. It also helps the liver remove chemicals (detoxification) of a wide range of toxins, drugs, pollutants, and carcinogens, and maintenance of immune functioning. Low GSH levels are associated with increased risks for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis and diabetes. So you want to maintain optimal tissue levels of GSH (through dietary intake) because it is so critical for maintaining health. What foods are good sources of GSH? Mushrooms, and many fresh (raw) fruits and vegetables, including asparagus, avocados, potatoes, spinach, squash, tomatoes. Also fresh, uncooked meats and dairy products (raw milk) and eggs. From Science Daily:

Mushrooms are full of antioxidants that may have antiaging potential

Mushrooms may contain unusually high amounts of two antioxidants that some scientists suggest could help fight aging and bolster health, according to a team of Penn State researchers. In a study, researchers found that mushrooms have high amounts of the ergothioneine and glutathione, both important antioxidants, said Robert Beelman, professor emeritus of food science and director of the Penn State Center for Plant and Mushroom Products for Health. He added that the researchers also found that the amounts the two compounds varied greatly between mushroom species.

Beelman said that when the body uses food to produce energy, it also causes oxidative stress because some free radicals are produced. Free radicals are oxygen atoms with unpaired electrons that cause damage to cells, proteins and even DNA as these highly reactive atoms travel through the body seeking to pair up with other electrons. Replenishing antioxidants in the body, then, may help protect against this oxidative stress.

According to the researchers, who report their findings in a recent issue of Food Chemistry, the amounts of ergothioneine and glutathione in mushrooms vary by species with the porcini species, a wild variety, containing the highest amount of the two compounds among the 13 species tested. The more common mushroom types, like the white button, had less of the antioxidants, but had higher amounts than most other foods, Beelman said....Mushrooms that are high in glutathione are also high in ergothioneine, for example. Cooking mushrooms does not seem to significantly affect the compounds, Beelman said.

"It's preliminary, but you can see that countries that have more ergothioneine in their diets, countries like France and Italy, also have lower incidents of neurodegenerative diseases, while people in countries like the United States, which has low amounts of ergothioneine in the diet, have a higher probability of diseases like Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's," said Beelman. "Now, whether that's just a correlation or causative, we don't know." [Original study.]

A recent study found that significantly increasing  dietary fiber intake after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer was associated with a lower death rate - from both colorectal cancer and overall mortality (from any cause). The 1575 men and women (all healthcare professionals) in the study had received a nonmetastatic colorectal cancer diagnosis (it had not spread beyond the colon), and the follow-up was about 8 years. These results were from food, not supplements.

How much did extra dietary fiber lower the death rate? For each additional 5  grams of fiber added to their daily diet (after diagnosis) was associated with a 18% lower colorectal cancer death rate, and a 14% lower death rate from any cause. In this study, whole grains, especially in cereals, were found to be the most beneficial. Current dietary guidelines recommend a fiber intake of 25 to 38 grams per day, but most Americans eat far lessDietary fiber is found in plant foods, such as beans, whole grains, nuts, seeds,  vegetables, and fruits. Plant fiber feeds the millions of gut microbes, especially beneficial microbes (here, here, and here) - something that was not really discussed in the study.

The researchers pointed out that a high fiber diet (especially from whole grains and cereals) is linked to a lower risk of getting colorectal (colon) cancer in the first place.  Also, that "higher intake of fiber, especially cereal fiber", has been linked to improved insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and total mortality. Other studies have found that  vitamin D supplementation, exercise, and eating fish all increase survival from colorectal cancer. From From Medical Xpress:

Fiber-rich diet boosts survival from colon cancer

A diet rich in fiber may lessen the chances of dying from colon cancer, a new study suggests. Among people treated for non-metastatic colon cancer, every 5 grams of fiber added to their diet reduced their odds of dying by nearly 25 percent, said lead researcher Dr. Andrew Chan. He is an associate professor in the department of medicine at Harvard Medical School.

"What you eat after you've been diagnosed may make a difference," Chan said. "There is a possibility that increasing your intake of fiber may actually lower the rate of dying from colon cancer and maybe even other causes." Chan cautioned, however, that the study does not prove that the additional fiber caused people to live longer, only that the two were associated.

Fiber has been linked to better insulin control and less inflammation, which may account for better survival, he suggested. In addition, a high-fiber diet may protect people from developing colon cancer in the first place. The greatest benefit was attributed to fiber from cereals and whole grains, according to the report. Vegetable fiber was linked to an overall reduction in death, but not specifically in death from colon cancer, and fiber from fruit was not linked to a reduction in death from any cause. 

For the study, Chan and his colleagues collected data on 1,575 men and women who took part in the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and who had been treated for colon or rectal cancer that had not spread beyond the colon. Specifically, the study looked at total fiber consumption in the six months to four years after the participants' cancer diagnosis. The researchers also looked at deaths from colon cancer and any other cause. In an eight-year period, 773 participants died, including 174 from colorectal cancer. [Original study.]