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A recent study tested a variety of probiotic (beneficial) Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria species of bacteria as a treatment for chronic sinusitis. Unfortunately, it found that the microbes tested had NO effect on chronic sinusitis symptoms. It was a nice study conducted in Sweden, with 21 people with chronic sinusitis (but without nasal polyps) randomly assigned to receive a nasal spray (that they used 2 x daily for 14 days) containing either a mixture of 13 bacteria or a "sham" nasal spray. No one knew who received what, and then after a few weeks they did a crossover - meaning who got what was switched for another 2 weeks.

But...the main finding is that after 14 days of using the nasal sprays, there was no improvement in either group, no improvement in symptoms, no effect on the sinus "microbial flora", and no effect on inflammation. In fact, 2 individuals wound up taking antibiotics while testing the bacteria nasal spray. In other words, a big fat zero.

The bacteria tested were what the researchers called a honeybee lactic acid (LAB) microbiome, with both Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria species: Lactobacillus apinorumL. melliferL. mellis, L. kimbladiiL. melliventrisL. helsingborgensisL. kullabergensisL. kunkeei, L. apisBifidobacterium asteroidesB. coryneforme, Bifidobacterium Bin7N, and Bifidobacterium Hma3N. These species are not typically found in probiotic supplements.

Why did they choose those strains of bacteria? Because "in vitro" testing (meaning in a test tube or culture dish) suggested that they would be effective against the pathogenic bacteria frequently found in chronic sinusitis (that they were antimicrobial). But real world testing in actual humans in this study showed that those specific Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria microbes had no effect on sinusitis symptoms. Their premise was good - that the sinus microbiome was "disturbed" or out of whack (dysbiosis) in chronic sinusitis, but unfortunately they chose the wrong bacteria to test as a treatment.

The SNOT-22 questionnaire that asked questions of sinusitis sufferers at several points in the study to see if there was improvement in sinusitis symptoms, is one typically given to those with chronic sinusitis. [By the way, when reviewing the questionnaire, I realized it left out some major sinusitis symptoms such as "gagging on phlegm", "waking up with sore throat", "teeth hurt", "headache" - all of which are frequently mentioned by many contacting me, and which I remember well from pre-L. sakei days. In other words - it is incomplete, yet it is the questionnaire typically used to assess quality of life and symptoms for those with chronic sinusitis.]

The researchers end the journal article by stating "Further studies are warranted to explore whether other tentative probiotic assemblages [other bacterial species] can confer positive health effects to patients suffering from inflammatory conditions of the upper airways." Huh... If only they had asked...  I've been writing about Lactobacillus sakei as an excellent treatment for chronic sinusitis since 2013 (based on results of Abreu et al study), and I've been getting positive feedback from others about L. sakei since early 2014. For those who find that L. sakei works as a sinusitis treatment, the results seem miraculous - typically with major improvement within a few days. (Please note: Perhaps other microbes may also work as a sinusitis treatment.) Excerpts from Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology:

Clinical efficacy of a topical lactic acid bacterial microbiome in chronic rhinosinusitis: A randomized controlled trial

A locally disturbed commensal microbiome might be an etiological factor in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in general and in CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) in particular. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been suggested to restore commensal microbiomes. A honeybee LAB microbiome consisting of various lactobacilli and bifidobacteria have been found potent against CRS pathogens in vitro. Recently, we examined effects of single nasal administrations of this microbiome in healthy subjects and found it inert. In this study, we examined effects of repeated such administrations in patients with CRSsNP.

The study was of a randomized, double‐blinded, crossover, and sham‐controlled design. Twenty patients received 2 weeks' treatment administered using a nasal spray‐device. The subjects were monitored with regard to symptoms (SNOT‐22 questionnaire, i.e., the primary efficacy variable), changes to their microbiome, and inflammatory products (IL‐6, IL‐8, TNF‐, IL‐8,a, and MPO) in nasal lavage fluids.

ResultsNeither symptom scores, microbiological explorations, nor levels of inflammatory products in nasal lavage fluids were affected by LAB (c.f. sham). Conclusion: Two weeks' nasal administration of a honeybee LAB microbiome to patients with CRSsNP is well tolerated but affects neither symptom severity nor the microbiological flora/local inflammatory activity.

 In this study, involving patients with well‐defined CRSsNP, we demonstrate that repeated nasal administration of a LAB microbiota composed of several species of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria over 2 weeks neither affects symptoms as assessed by SNOT‐22 questionnaire nor the bacterial composition or the inflammatory activity in the nasal cavity. The observations are of relevance to the evaluation of topical LAB treatment in the management of upper respiratory tract conditions such as CRS.

A new study's results actually made me ask - this was a surprise? Of course more fit people have lower levels of chronic inflammation and smaller waist size, no matter their Body Mass Index (BMI) - which includes their weight. And the reverse is also true (lower fitness levels are associated with greater waist size and higher levels of chronic inflammation, no matter the BMI). Which means that being fit, no matter the weight, has health benefits. From Medical Xpress:

Low fitness is associated with larger waist size and higher degree of inflammation

Low fitness is associated with a larger waist size and a higher degree of inflammation, according to a study published January 17, 2018 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Anne-Sophie Wedell-Neergaard from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and colleagues.

Waist circumference can indicate the amount of excess fat found around the abdomen and previous studies have shown excess abdominal fat may increase the risk of chronic system inflammation and metabolic diseases. The authors of the present study sought to investigate the association between fitness and waist circumference as well as the association between fitness and low-grade inflammation, and whether there was a correlation with Body Mass Index (BMI).

The researchers analyzed the previously collected data of 10,976 individuals from The Danish National Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. These individuals took a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) test to assess their physical fitness. Their waist circumference, weight and height were measured, and blood samples were taken to measure their level of C-reactive protein, a nonspecific biomarker of low-grade inflammation.

The researchers found that higher levels of fitness were associated with a smaller waist circumference and a lower degree of inflammation independently of BMI. The researchers acknowledge that there are possible limitations that may affect the findings of the study, but overall the results suggest that increased fitness has the potential to reduce abdominal fat mass and inflammation which may improve metabolic health irrespective of BMI

There are health benefits to babies from being breastfed, including that breast milk contains hundreds of microbial species which are transmitted to the baby. There are also health benefits to the mother, including a lower risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. In addition, a multicenter study in the United States found that breastfeeding lowers the mother's risk of type 2 diabetes over the next 30 years - by up to 47%.

In general: the study found that the longer a woman breastfeeds, the lower her risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Thus one can say that breastfeeding has a "protective" effect for type 2 diabetes. From Medical Xpress:

Thirty-year study shows women who breastfeed for six months or more reduce their diabetes risk

In a long-term national study, breastfeeding for six months or longer cuts the risk of developing type 2 diabetes nearly in half for women throughout their childbearing years, according to new Kaiser Permanente research published Jan. 16 in JAMA Internal Medicine. "We found a very strong association between breastfeeding duration and lower risk of developing diabetes, even after accounting for all possible confounding risk factors," said lead author Erica P. Gunderson, PhD, MS, MPH, senior research scientist with the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research.

Women who breastfed for six months or more across all births had a 47 percent reduction in their risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those who did not breastfeed at all. Women who breastfed for six months or less had a 25 percent reduction in diabetes risk.

Dr. Gunderson and colleagues analyzed data during the 30 years of follow up from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a national, multi-center investigation of cardiovascular disease risk factors that originally enrolled about 5,000 adults aged 18 to 30 in 1985 to 1986, including more than 1,000 members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California.The new findings add to a growing body of evidence that breastfeeding has protective effects for both mothers and their offspring, including lowering a mother's risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

The long-term benefits of breastfeeding on lower diabetes risk were similar for black women and white women, and women with and without gestational diabetes. Black women were three times as likely as white women to develop diabetes within the 30-year study, which is consistent with higher risk found by others. Black women enrolled in CARDIA were also less likely to breastfeed than white women.

"The incidence of diabetes decreased in a graded manner as breastfeeding duration increased, regardless of race, gestational diabetes, lifestyle behaviors, body size, and other metabolic risk factors measured before pregnancy, implying the possibility that the underlying mechanism may be biological," Gunderson said. Several plausible biological mechanisms are possible for the protective effects of breastfeeding, including the influence of lactation-associated hormones on the pancreatic cells that control blood insulin levels and thereby impact blood sugar.

This study included 1,238 black and white women who did not have diabetes when they enrolled in CARDIA, or prior to their subsequent pregnancies. Over the next 30 years, each woman had at least one live birth and was routinely screened for diabetes under the CARDIA protocol, which included diagnostic screening criteria for diabetes. Participants also reported lifestyle behaviors (such as diet and physical activity) and the total amount of time they breastfed their children.

 Breastfeeding a baby. Credit: Wikipedia Commons, Anton Nossik.

Prostate cancer is something that men worry about, especially because it is the most common cancer in men, and because it can take several forms. On one hand, a tumor can be "indolent" or so slow growing that it just needs to be monitored, or sometimes it can be very aggressive and even lead to death. That's why the possibility of a dietary pattern (what a person eats) having an effect on the cancer's progression or aggressiveness is very exciting - if true, it would be something people could do to improve their prostate cancer outcome. Or perhaps even prevent it in the first place. Studies up to this point have been mixed, with no clear results.

A recent large study conducted in Spain found that those men with prostate cancer who had a high adherence to a Mediterranean diet had a lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer, as compared to those following a typical Western diet (large amounts of fatty dairy products, refined grains, processed meat, caloric beverages, sweets, fast food, and sauces) or a Prudent diet (low-fat dairy products, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and juices). A Mediterranean dietary pattern is rich in fruits and vegetables, and also fish, legumes, boiled potatoes, olives and olive oil, vegetable oils, and a low intake of juices.

The researchers also discussed that there are many similarities with breast cancer and prostate cancer, including risk factors. They found in an earlier study in Spain that eating a Western diet is associated with breast cancer risk, the Prudent diet is not associated with breast cancer, and the Mediterranean diet seems to be protective for breast cancer. From Medical Xpress:

A more complete Mediterranean diet may protect against aggressive prostate cancer

In a new study published in The Journal of Urology, researchers determined that men who followed a Mediterranean diet, rich in fish, boiled potatoes, whole fruits, vegetables, legumes, and olive oil, and low consumption of juices had lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PC) than those who followed other dietary patterns like Prudent or Western diets. ..."Our results show that a diet oriented towards the prevention of aggressive tumors in the prostate should probably include important elements of the Mediterranean diet such as fish, legumes, and olive oil, and suggest that a high intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains might not be enough."

The authors explored the relationship between the risk of having PC and dietary patterns as part of the MCC-Spain study, a Spanish case-control study that involved 733 patients with histologically confirmed PC and 1,229 healthy men with a mean age of 66 years from seven Spanish regions. Anthropometric, epidemiologic, and dietary data were collected.

Adherence to the three dietary patterns of Western, Prudent, and Mediterranean, which characterize the dietary habits of the Spanish population, was evaluated, The Western [dietary] pattern includes consumption of large amounts of fatty dairy products, refined grains, processed meat, caloric beverages, sweets, fast food, and sauces. The Prudent pattern involves consumption of low-fat dairy products, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and juices. Finally, the Mediterranean pattern consists of high consumption of fish, boiled potatoes, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and olive oil, and low consumption of juices. The diets were graded according to the degree of adherence to each pattern and assigned to four quartiles from lower to higher adherence within each pattern.

Only a high adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern appeared to be associated with a lower risk of aggressive PC. Prudent and Mediterranean dietary patterns showed different effects in low and high grade tumors. 

PC was assessed using Gleason scores of tumor aggressiveness (<6 or ?6) and clinical stage (cT1b to cT4). A Gleason score of <6 typically indicates a less aggressive tumor with generally good prognosis. Lower clinical stage (cT1-cT2a) indicates a tumor that has not spread. Results indicated that for more aggressive and more extensive tumors (Gleason >6 and stages cT2b to cT4), only high adherence to the Mediterranean diet showed a statistically significant protective effect. All other dietary patterns and tumor characteristics showed little or no correlation and did not achieve statistical significance. [Original study.]

A recent study by a team of researchers from France and Denmark highlighted the point that all medicines have side-effects, even though we may not realize it for years. Ibuprofen is a great non-prescription pain reliever - a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), but it should be taken only when needed. Ibuprofen is found in such commonly used medicines as Advil and Motrin. The researchers found that ibuprofen has antiandrogenic effects (alters or disrupts the endocrine system) which results in a temporary condition called "compensated hypogonadism" when taken for extended periods by healthy young men (in the study 600 mg was taken daily for 6 weeks).

The researchers stress that this "depression of important aspects of testicular function, including testosterone production" was temporary from short term use, but they were concerned with those who take it daily for longer periods, such as athletes. They wondered whether this could be contributing to lowered sperm levels and the drops in male fertility that we are seeing in western developed countries. [Note that ibuprofen use has also been linked to a higher risk of cardiac arrest.] From Medical Xpress:

Taking ibuprofen for long periods found to alter human testicular physiology

A team of researchers from Denmark and France has found that taking regular doses of the pain reliever ibuprofen over a long period of time can lead to a disorder in men called compensated hypogonadism. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes their study, which involved giving the drug to volunteers and monitoring their hormones and sperm production.

To learn more about the possible impacts of the popular anti-inflammation drug Ibuprofen on male fertility when taken for long periods of time, the researchers asked 31 men between the ages of 18 and 35 to take 600 milligrams (three tablets) a day of the drug for six weeks. Other volunteers were given a placebo. Over the course of the study, the volunteers were tested to see what impact the drug had on their bodies.

The researchers report that just two weeks into the study, they found that all of the volunteers had an increase in luteinizing hormones, which the male body uses to regulate the production of testosterone. The increase indicated that the drug was causing problems in certain cells in the testicles, preventing them from producing testosterone, which is, of course, needed to produce sperm cells. They further report that the change caused the pituitary gland to respond by producing more of another hormone, which forced the body to produce more testosterone. The net result was that overall testosterone levels remained constant, but the body was overstressing to compensate for the detrimental impact of the Ibuprofen—a state called compensated hypogonadism.

The researchers note that while compensated hypogonadism can cause a temporary reduction in the production of sperm cells, reducing fertility, it is generally not cause for alarm. What is more of a concern, they note, is using the drug for longer periods of time. It has not been proven yet, but the researchers suspect such use, as is seen with some professional athletes or others with chronic pain issues, might lead to a condition called overt primary hypogonadism, in which the symptoms become worse—sufferers report a reduction in libido, muscle mass and changes in mood. Additional studies are required, they note, to find out if this is, indeed, the case. [Original study.]

A recent study's results give hope to those who haven't really exercised or been physically active as they've gone through middle-age (it's viewed as "sedentary aging") and wonder if this dooms them in some way. Is it too late to get benefits from starting to exercise now? Studies show that being sedentary (that is, not being physically active or exercising weekly) and in "poor physical fitness" in middle-age is a risk factor for later heart failure. This is because a consequence of "sedentary aging" is stiffness of the heart, specifically the left ventricle (thus a loss of "cardiac plasticity").

But the study found that after 2 years of an exercise program in (formerly) sedentary middle-aged adults, they improved their maximal oxygen uptake, decreased the heart's stiffness, and improved overall fitness. All good. So the bottom line is: No, it's not too late to start exercising. The heart has elasticity and can remodel itself if the exercise is started before age 65 and is done 4 to 5 times a week. The adults studied were both male and female, between the ages of 45 and 64,  and exercised or were physically active for a total of 150 to 180 minutes a week, which meant at least 30 minutes 4 or 5 times a week.

Looking at the study's exercise regimen, it's clear that a variety of exercises or physical activities (low, moderate, and high intensity) is necessary. Some of the time one should be active or exercise to a point of breaking a sweat and feeling the heart pump. This meant that over time the participants increased their exercise frequency, duration, and intensity. Think about it - as you get more fit, it takes more to get your heart pumping and to break a sweat, and you can handle more exercise. 

Unfortunately the "control group", who did a combination of yoga, balance, and strength training 3 times a week for 2 years did not show improvements in heart plasticity, maximal oxygen uptake, or in overall fitness.Yikes. Sooo...the study clearly shows it is worth getting off your butt and making the effort to exercise. Perhaps view it as brushing your teeth - a daily nuisance, but necessary for health. The researchers themselves stated "Exercise is medicine." From Science Daily:

Proper exercise can reverse damage from heart aging

Exercise can reverse damage to sedentary, aging hearts and help prevent risk of future heart failure -- if it's enough exercise, and if it's begun in time, according to a new study by cardiologists at UT Southwestern and Texas Health Resources. To reap the most benefit, the exercise regimen should begin by late middle age (before age 65), when the heart apparently retains some plasticity and ability to remodel itself, according to the findings by researchers at the Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine (IEEM), which is a collaboration between UT Southwestern Medical Center and Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas.

And the exercise needs to be performed four to five times a week. Two to three times a week was not enough, the researchers found in an earlier study..... The regimen included exercising four to five times a week, generally in 30-minute sessions, plus warmup and cool-down: One of the weekly sessions included a high-intensity 30-minute workout, such as aerobic interval sessions in which heart rate tops 95 percent of peak rate for 4 minutes, with 3 minutes of recovery, repeated four times (a so-called "4 x 4"). Each interval session was followed by a recovery session performed at relatively low intensity. One day's session lasted an hour and was of moderate intensity. (As a "prescription for life," Levine said this longer session could be a fun activity such as tennis, aerobic dancing, walking, or biking.) One or two other sessions were performed each week at a moderate intensity, meaning the participant would break a sweat, be a little short of breath, but still be able to carry on a conversation -- the "talk test.".... One or two weekly strength training sessions using weights or exercise machines were included on a separate day, or after an endurance session.

The more than 50 participants in the study were divided into two groups, one of which received two years of supervised exercise training and the other group, a control group, which participated in yoga and balance training.A t the end of the two-year study, those who had exercised showed an 18 percent improvement in their maximum oxygen intake during exercise and a more than 25 percent improvement in compliance, or elasticity, of the left ventricular muscle of the heart, Dr. Levine noted. He compared the change in the heart to a stretchy, new rubber band versus one that has gotten stiff sitting in a drawer. Sedentary aging can lead to a stiffening of the muscle in the heart's left ventricle, the chamber that pumps oxygen-rich blood back out to the body, he explained.

"When the muscle stiffens, you get high pressure and the heart chamber doesn't fill as well with blood. In its most severe form, blood can back up into the lungs. That's when heart failure develops," said Dr. Levine, who holds the S. Finley Ewing Chair for Wellness at Texas Health Dallas and the Harry S. Moss Heart Chair for Cardiovascular Research. Earlier research by UT Southwestern cardiologists showed that left ventricular stiffening often shows up in middle age in people who don't exercise and aren't fit, leaving them with small, stiff chambers that can't pump blood as well[Original study.]

I recently read a nice article discussing indoor air pollution, which can be worse than outdoor air, even that of cities. Yes, that's true! In past posts I've discussed problems (and health issues) with air fresheners, fragrances, incensedryer sheets, scented candles, synthetic rugs, "stain-proofing", and flame retardants in upholstery, but this article is about furniture and how it can emit various chemicals ("outgassing"), especially when new. Think of all the stains, glues, paints, etc. used in making furniture.

The article points out that when buying new furniture, can look to see if it is certified by Greenguard or SCS Global Services as having low or no emissions of  hazardous chemicals. Another thing to do is avoid particle boardengineered wood, or pressed wood (frequently emits formaldehyde, a carcinogen). But in the mean time - it's generally a good idea to frequently get fresh air in your residence by opening windows for a while. Excerpt's from E. Leamy's article in the Washington Post:

Your furnishings could be causing indoor air pollution

We feel safe in our homes, but that can be a false sense of security. The threat I’m talking about is something we can’t see: indoor air pollution. The air in our homes and workplaces can be more polluted than outdoor air in the most industrialized citiesaccording to the Environmental Protection Agency. The EPA says the problem is compounded by the fact that Americans spend 90 percent of their time indoors. Many different things can cause indoor air pollution, and they have a cumulative effect on our health.

Let’s look at one of those possible sources: our furnishings. Yes, your new carpet or cabinet could be subtly poisoning you with chemicals such as benzene, ethylene glycol or formaldehyde. It’s called “off-gassing.” Four of the top 10 chemicals emitted from furnishings are considered “acute” hazards, or irritants. “Poor indoor air quality can cause or contribute to the development of infections, lung cancer and chronic lung diseases such as asthma,” according to the American Lung Association.

How do researchers know that some furnishings emit harmful gaseous chemicals? Greenguard, a division of UL Environment, has developed a way of testing furniture to find out. In a ­generic-looking office park outside Atlanta, researchers heft furniture into giant, airtight chambers. .... Greenguard developed the testing method so manufacturers who wanted to sell low-emission furniture could prove their products were healthier. UL awards its Greenguard certification to furniture that emits low or no levels of hazardous chemicals

Manufacturers don’t have to state what chemicals they use in their furnishings. The EPA singles out engineered wood — otherwise known as particleboard — as being particularly prone to emitting formaldehyde, a probable carcinogen. UL Environment adds that products that are applied wet, such as glues and paints, often off-gas while they are curing. Sometimes a strong industrial odor is a good hint that a piece of furniture is emitting chemicals. If you develop a headache while inside a building where paints, stains or glues are being used, that’s another clue. 

However, it is possible to know whether harmful chemicals are not present, because more and more furnishings are being certified as having low emissions. Here are certifications you can look for and other steps you can take to reduce your exposure to indoor air pollution from your furnishings: 

1. Check certifications. Look for an indoor-air-quality certification, such as the one offered by Greenguard. Another firm that certifies low-emission furniture is SCS Global Services2. Air out. .... 3. Paint first. If you’re renovating your house, paint it and air it out before installing carpeting and curtains, because they can absorb chemical fumes from the paint..... 4. Buy used. Off-gassing diminishes over time, so buying older furniture can be better. ....5. Avoid particleboard. This material is also called pressed wood, engineered wood and MDF. The glues used to hold the material together often contain harmful chemicals such as formaldehyde. Alternatively, look for certified particleboard products. 6. Choose unscented. .... 7. Beyond furnishings. Other products frequently used in homes can also off-gas and cause indoor air pollution. 

For those who need convincing that lifestyle can contribute to development of cancer or its prevention, new medical research has once again supported the importance of lifestyle choices. A report from Australian researchers (with similar findings as a study in the US) stated: an estimated 38% of cancer deaths and 33% of cancer diagnoses could have been prevented with healthy lifestyle choices.

And what were the lifestyle choices that are linked to cancer?  The researchers list 20 separate things (in 8 broad groups) that are known to cause or are linked to cancer. They are: tobacco smoke (smoking or second-hand smoke), dietary factors (low-intake of fruit, non-starchy vegetables, and dietary fiber; and high intake of red and processed meat), overweight/obesity, alcohol, physical inactivity, solar ultraviolet radiation, certain infections (they list 7 infections, such as human papillomavirus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C), and reproductive factors (lack of breastfeeding, menopausal hormone therapy use, combined oral contraceptive use). Note that they found that the #1 most important lifestyle factor is tobacco smoke - and it accounted for about 23% of all preventable cancer deaths in Australia. From Medscape:

One Third of Cancer Deaths Could Be Prevented by Lifestyle

As we head into the festive season, many are looking forward to the tradition of "Eat, drink, and be merry." But as another research paper shows that more than a third of cancer deaths could be prevented by lifestyle, maybe a qualifier should be added:"celebration in moderation." The latest statistics come from Australia, where researchers note that 44,004 cancer deaths occurred in 2013. But an estimated 38% of these deaths and 33% of cancer diagnoses could have been prevented with healthy lifestyle choices, says a research team led by Louise Wilson, MEpi, at the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute and the University of Queensland, Brisbane.

These cancer diagnoses and deaths were seen in Australians of all ages and are directly attributable to 20 known modifiable risk factors within eight categories that are established causes of cancer, the study authors say. The report is published in the February 2018 issue of the International Journal of Cancer.

Smoking was the leading cause of preventable cancer death in Australia in 2013 and accounted for 23% of all cancer deaths. ...Three other categories of modifiable risk factors — poor diet, overweight/obesity, and infections — accounted for 5% of cancer deaths each. In a fifth category, alcohol-related cancer accounted for 2.4% of deaths. Physical inactivity factors were responsible for 0.8% of cancer deaths, overexposure to ultraviolet radiation for 3.2% of cancer deaths, and, in the eighth category, reproductive or hormonal factors were linked to 0.4% of cancer deaths.

In the diet category, risk factors include low intake of fruit, nonstarchy vegetables, and dietary fiber and high intake of red and processed meat. In the infection category, seven cancer-causing agents, including human papillomavirus (associated with cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, oral cavity, and oropharynx) and Helicobacter pylori (noncardia stomach cancer), are included. Lack of breastfeeding, use of menopausal hormone therapy, and use of combined oral contraceptive use (breast and cervical cancer) are listed as preventable risk factors in the reproductive category.

These findings are in keeping with other research on the role of modifiable lifestyle-related risk factors in cancer prevention. As previously reported by Medscape Medical News, results from a large cohort study in the United States led researchers to conclude that 20% to 40% of cancer cases and related mortality could be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and exercising regularly. In another report, results from a national online survey undertaken by the American Society of Clinical Oncology showed that, like their Australian counterparts, most US adults don't know alcohol and obesity are major risk factors for cancer[Original study.]

A dividing lung cancer cell. Lung cancer is associated with smoking. Credit: National Institute of Health (NIH). 

 

Just read a small study that compared the microbes in the sinus microbiome between 12 healthy people with no sinusitis (controls) and 14 with chronic sinusitis, their neurotransmitter levels (serotonin, dopamine, and GABA), and also looked at depression scores in the 2 groups. Well, of course they found some microbial differences between healthy people and those with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), but they also found that those with the most severe chronic sinusitis tended to have the most depressive symptoms, and lower amounts of the neurotransmitters studied, but they did not find significant differences overall.

I found their summary and conclusions problematic, since they discussed that "possibly" the sinus microbes influence brain neurotransmitters. And they pointed out that as certain disease associated microbes increased (especially Moraxella), the neurotransmitter concentrations tended to decrease in those with sinusitis. But since there were no significant group differences, they did not prove their hypotheses, and conclusions can not be made. So saying there is "the potential for downstream effects of the sinonasal microbiota on neural signaling and, subsequently, brain function and behavior" is misleading and overreaching. The researchers also said it was "difficult to discern disease associations from natural variation." Hah!

It should be obvious that the worse the chronic sinusitis, the more depressive symptoms, because having chronic sinusitis is DEPRESSING. One suffers with it. Some people have told me how chronic sinusitis has destroyed their life - whether their health, financially, with relationships, etc. Of course they will have higher depressive scores! And when a Lactobacillus sakei product or other probiotic successfully treats sinusitis (usually very quickly), then the mood is one of elation as symptoms go away (finally health!).

All one can say (based on studies) is: the sinus microbiomes in healthy people (normal sinus microbial community) are somewhat different from those with chronic sinusitis (out-of-whack microbial community or dysbiosis). And one would expect that those with less severe/milder sinusitis have a "better" community of sinus microbes - that is, more microbes that are associated with health, and fewer of those associated with sickness, than sicker people. Which is what this study suggested. Excerpts from the International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology:

The sinonasal microbiota, neural signaling, and depression in chronic rhinosinusitis

The complex relationships between the human microbiota, the immune system, and the brain play important roles in both health and disease, and have been of increasing interest in the study of chronic inflammatory mucosal conditions. We hypothesized that the sinonasal microbiota may act as a modifier of interkingdom neural signaling and, subsequently, mental health, in the upper respiratory inflammatory condition chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In this study we investigated associations between the sinonasal microbiota; local concentrations of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); and depression severity in a cohort of 14 CRS patients and 12 healthy controls.

Several commonly “health-associated” sinonasal bacterial taxa were positively associated with higher neurotransmitter concentrations and negatively associated with depression severity. In contrast, several taxa commonly associated with an imbalanced sinonasal microbiota negatively associated with neurotransmitters and positively with depression severity. Few significant differences were identified when comparing between control and CRS subject groups, including neurotransmitter concentrations, depression scores, or sinonasal microbiota composition or abundance. Conclusion: The findings obtained lend support to the potential for downstream effects of the sinonasal microbiota on neural signaling and, subsequently, brain function and behavior.

SOME OTHER EXCERPTS: Depression scores were also not significantly different between controls and CRS patients. .... The serotonin levels in CRS patients compared with control subjects tended to be lower, but not significantly so. Although median values for dopamine, GABA, and serotonin were generally lower in CRS patients than controls, all 3 neurotransmitters had a greater range among those with CRS, and no differences were significant. ... For both CRS and control individuals, bacterial communities were generally dominated by OTUs of the genera Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus.

Correlation analyses identified associations between members of the genera Staphylococcus, Finegoldia, Propionibacterium, Peptoniphilus, and Anaerococcus, as well as bacterial community diversity overall. Members of these genera have been previously identified as representative of more “health-associated” sinonasal bacterial community types, whereas their depletion has been associated with lower bacterial community diversity, increased bacterial load, increased rates of asthma, and elevated markers of inflammation. Similarly, members of the genera Burkholderia and Propionibacterium have been identified as 2 potential “gatekeepers” that help maintain bacterial community stability in the sinonasal tract. In the present study, several of these same bacterial taxa were significantly positively correlated with neurotransmitter levels and negatively with depression severity, whereas several other OTUs (including members of Streptococcus, Rothia, Enterobacteriaceae, Corynebacterium, and Moraxella) showed the opposite pattern (negatively associated with neurotransmitter levels and positively with depression severity). 

The message is clear from a recent study: older adults should get out and move, move , move (brisk walking is fine) - to lower the risk of early death. The older women engaging in the most moderate to vigorous activity had a 65% lower risk of early death during an average follow-up period of 2.3 years (when compared to the women with the least exercise).

How much exercise did the groups get? The least active had 6.8 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous exercise, and the most active had about 68 minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. The women wore a Fitbit type of device (an accelerometer) that measured their movements. Moderate to vigorous exercise was any movement that got the heart rate up a bit, made them sweat a little - and which could be brisk walking.

The study was done with older women (in their 70s), but one would think it also applies to men. Note: all-cause mortality means death from any cause (death in general). From Medscape:

Intense Exercise Tied to 65% Lower Death Risk in Older Women

Older women who engaged in the greatest amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity, such as brisk walking, were found to have a 65% lower risk of all-cause mortality compared with women who performed the least amount of such exercise, a new study reports. The researchers examined women in their early 70s in the Women's Health Study (WHS) who wore a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days to measure physical activity. The findings, by Dr I-Min Lee (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA) and colleagues, were published November 6, 2017 in Circulation.

It's been known for a long time that physical activity is associated with lower mortality rates, Dr Lee told theheart.org | Medscape Cardiology.... Now that physical activity can be better measured using a research-grade triaxial accelerometer, the magnitude of the reduced risk of short-term death with recommended amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity can be seen to be as strong as not smoking, Lee said. ... This study "reinforces the message that adults should strive to meet physical activity guidelines of 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous exercise per week," Dr Alpa Patel (American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia) who recently published a related article that showed benefits from walking told theheart.org | Medscape Cardiology.

From 2011 to 2015, 18,289 of 29,494 living women (63%) in the Women's Health Study agreed to participate in the current study.... The remaining 17,708 women were mailed a research-grade triaxial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+, ActiGraph Corp) and asked to wear it on their hips for 7 days (but to take it off when sleeping or swimming) and then mail it back. 

The women spent a median of 8.4, 5.8, and 0.5 hours/day being sedentary, doing light physical activity, and doing moderate to vigorous physical activity, respectively. "The least active quartile were doing 8 minutes a day of moderate to vigorous . . . physical activity," Lee said, which was typically "brisk walking, anything that gets your heart rate up a little bit, gets you to sweat a little bit." The most active quartile did about 68 minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. During an average follow-up of 2.3 years, 207 women died. The total amount of physical activity was inversely related to the risk of all-cause mortality during follow-up, after adjustment for age and time spent wearing the device.