Scientists have suggested for decades that a person's diet may play a role in the development of intestinal bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. This is because these diseases are dramatically increasing in industrialized countries (e.g. USA and Canada) where people eat western diets with lots of ultra-processed foods (additives and artificial ingredients) and a low fiber intake.
A recent large world-wide study found that a higher intake of ultra-processed foods was associated with an increased risk of developing intestinal bowel diseases. This association was seen for all ultra-processed foods, as well as different types of ultra-processed foods - such as processed meats, soft drinks, refined sweetened foods (e.g. packaged desserts, sugary cereals) and salty foods and snacks.
However, this association with IBD was not seen with higher intakes of white meat, red meat, dairy, starch, fruit, vegetables, and legumes. The 116,087 participants were from 21 countries and were followed for 9 to 11 years.
Processed and ultra-processed foods often include many non-natural ingredients and additives such as artificial flavors and colors, sugars, stabilisers, emulsifiers, and preservatives. Emulsifiers are added to most ultra-processed foods to aid texture and extend shelf life. Even "natural flavors" is a laboratory concoction used to alter a food product's taste.
Other studies have found increased rates of gut inflammation and alteration of gut microbes from foods containing emulsifiers (e.g. carboxymethylcellulose, polysorbate 80, soy lecithin, carrageenan), maltodextrin, and titanium dioxide (frequently in nanoparticle form).
Bottom line: For health, eat a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. Eat less fast food, ultra-processed foods, processed meats, sugary packaged sweets, and soft drinks. Read ingredient lists!
From Science Daily: Ultra-processed food linked to higher risk of IBD
A higher intake of ultra-processed food is associated with higher risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), finds a study published by The BMJ today.
Ultra-processed foods include packaged baked goods and snacks, fizzy drinks, sugary cereals, ready meals containing food additives, and reconstituted meat and fish products -- often containing high levels of added sugar, fat and salt, but lacking in vitamins and fiber.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is more common in industrialized nations and it is thought that dietary factors might play a role, but data linking ultra-processed food intake with IBD are limited.
To explore this further, an international team of researchers drew on detailed dietary information from 116,087 adults aged 35-70 years living in 21 low, middle, and high income countries who were taking part in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study.
PURE is examining the impact of societal influences on chronic diseases in different countries around the world.
Participants were enrolled in the study between 2003 and 2016 and were assessed at least every three years. Over an average follow-up of 9.7 years, new diagnoses of IBD, including Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, were recorded. During this time, 467 participants developed IBD (90 with Crohn's disease and 377 with ulcerative colitis).
After taking account of other potentially influential factors, the researchers found that higher intake of ultra-processed food was associated with a higher risk of IBD.
For example, compared with less than one serving of ultra-processed food per day, they found an 82% increased risk of IBD among those who consumed five or more servings per day, and a 67% increased risk for 1-4 servings per day. Different subgroups of ultra-processed food, including soft drinks, refined sweetened foods, salty snacks, and processed meat, each were associated with higher risks of IBD.
In contrast, intakes of white meat, red meat, dairy, starch, and fruit, vegetables, and legumes (such as peas, beans and lentils) were not associated with IBD.
As white meat, unprocessed red meat, dairy, starch, and fruit, vegetables, and legumes were not found to be associated with development of IBD, this study suggests that it might not be the food itself that confers this risk but rather the way the food is processed or ultra-processed, they explain.