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Plant-based Diets and Lower Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Some good news. A recent large study found that a healthy diet rich in plant-based foods can lower your risk of getting type 2 diabetes.

Researchers at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health found that a healthy diet rich in plant-based foods (fruits, vegetable, legumes, nuts, whole grains, coffee) resulted in plasma metabolite profiles that were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

In other words, differences in the chemical make-up of foods means that what a person eats is reflected in their metabolite profile. The 200+ plasma metabolites include lipids, cholesterol, glycerides, phospholipids, fatty acids, inflammation, amino acids, and these give a metabolic profile.

Bottom line: A diet rich in plant-based foods is good for your health in many  ways, including lowering your risk of type 2 diabetes. One such example of a good way to eat (dietary pattern) is a Mediterranean style diet (rich in whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, fish, and olive oil).

From Medical Xpress: New study reveals that healthy plant-based diets are associated with a lower risk of developing diabetes

New research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) finds that the consumption of healthy plant-based foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, coffee, and legumes, is associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) in generally healthy people and support their role in diabetes prevention.

The study was conducted by Professor Frank Hu and colleagues at the Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, U.S., and aimed to identify the metabolite profiles related to different plant-based diets and investigate possible associations between those profiles and the risk of developing T2D.

A metabolite is a substance used or produced by the chemical processes in a living organism and includes the vast number of compounds found in different foods as well as the complex variety of molecules created as those compounds are broken down and transformed for use by the body. Differences in the chemical makeup of foods means that an individual's diet should be reflected in their metabolite profile. 

The global health burden of T2D is further increased by the numerous complications arising from the disease, both macrovascular, such as cardiovascular disease, and microvascular, which damage the kidneys, the eyes, and the nervous system. The diabetes epidemic is primarily caused by unhealthy diets, having overweight or obesity, genetic predisposition, and other lifestyle factors such as a lack of exercise. Plant-based diets, especially healthy ones rich in high quality foods such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, have been associated with a lower risk of developing T2D but the underlying mechanisms involved are not fully understood.

The team conducted an analysis of blood plasma samples and dietary intake of 10,684 participants from three prospective cohorts (Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II and Health Professionals Follow-up Study). Participants were predominantly white, middle-aged (mean age 54 years), and with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 25.6kg/m2.

Study participants completed food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) which were scored according to their adherence to three plant-based diets: an overall Plant-based Diet Index (PDI), a healthy Plant-based Diet Index (hPDI), and an Unhealthy Plant-Based Diet Index (uPDI). Diet indices were based on that individual's intake of 18 food groups: healthy plant foods (whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, vegetable oils, and tea/coffee); unhealthy plant foods (refined grains, fruit juices, potatoes, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sweets/desserts); and animal foods (animal fats, dairy, eggs, fish/seafood, meat, and miscellaneous animal-based foods). The team distinguished between healthy and unhealthy plant foods according to their association with T2D, cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and other conditions, including obesity and high blood pressure.

The researchers tested blood samples taken back in late 1980s and 1990s in the early phase of the three studies mentioned above to create metabolite profile scores for the participants, and any cases of incident T2D during the follow-up period of the study were recorded. Analyses of these data together with the diet index scores enabled the team to find any correlations between metabolite profile, diet index, and T2D risk.

The study found that compared with participants who did not develop T2D, those who were diagnosed with the disease during follow-up had a lower intake of healthy plant-based foods, as well as lower scores for PDI and hPDI. In addition, they had a higher average BMI, and were more likely to have high blood pressure and cholesterol levels, use blood pressure and cholesterol drugs, have a family history of diabetes, and be less physically active.

The metabolomics data revealed that plant-based diets were associated with unique multi-metabolite profiles, and that these patterns differed significantly between the healthy and unhealthy plant-based diets. In addition, metabolite profile scores for both the overall plant-based diet and the healthy plant-based diet were inversely associated with incident T2D in a generally healthy population, independent of BMI, and other diabetes risk factors, while no association was observed for the unhealthy plant-based diet. As a result, higher metabolite profile scores for PDI and hPDI indicated both closer adherence to those diets and having a lower risk of developing T2D.

Professor Hu explains: "While it is difficult to tease out the contributions of individual foods because they were analysed together as a pattern, individual metabolites from consumption of polyphenol-rich plant foods like fruits, vegetables, coffee, and legumes are all closely linked to healthy plant-based diet and lower risk of diabetes."

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