A major new report about colorectal cancer found that a number of lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity) increase or lower the risk of colorectal cancer. The report was an analysis of global research studies and was published by the American Institute for Cancer Research and World Cancer Research Fund.
They found that there is strong evidence that: being physically active, consuming whole grains, consuming foods containing dietary fiber, consuming dairy products, and taking calcium supplements all decrease the risk of colorectal cancer. On the other hand, there is strong evidence that: consuming red meat, consuming processed meat, consuming 2 or more alcoholic drinks per day, being overweight or obese, and being tall all increase the risk of colorectal cancer.
Also, that there is some evidence that: consuming foods containing vitamin C, consuming fish, vitamin D, consuming multivitamin supplements lower the risk of colorectal cancer. And there is some evidence that: low consumption on non-starch vegetables, low consumption of fruit, and consumption of foods containing haem iron might increase the risk of colorectal cancer. [NOTE: There are 2 types of iron in food: haem and non-haem iron. Haem iron is only found in meat, chicken, and fish, and is easily absorbed. Non-haem iron is found in plant foods, such as vegetables, cereals, beans, and lentils, but is not absorbed as well by the body.]
Finally, their cancer prevention recommendations for preventing cancer in general include: maintaining a healthy weight, being physically active and eating a healthy diet. (other posts on this - here, here, here). They also advise eating a healthy diet (think Mediterranean style diet) rather than relying on supplements to protect against cancer. The report also noted that inflammatory bowel disease and smoking increase the risk of colorectal cancer. From Science Daily:
Eating whole grains daily, such as brown rice or whole-wheat bread, reduces colorectal cancer risk, with the more you eat the lower the risk, finds a new report by the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) and the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF). This is the first time AICR/WCRF research links whole grains independently to lower cancer risk. Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Colorectal Cancer also found that hot dogs, bacon and other processed meats consumed regularly increase the risk of this cancer. There was strong evidence that physical activity protects against colon cancer.
The new report evaluated the scientific research worldwide on how diet, weight and physical activity affect colorectal cancer risk. The report analyzed 99 studies, including data on 29 million people, of whom over a quarter of a million were diagnosed with colorectal cancer.
Other factors found to increase colorectal cancer include: - Eating high amounts of red meat (above 500 grams cooked weight a week), such as beef or pork, - Being overweight or obese, - Consuming two or more daily alcoholic drinks (30 grams of alcohol), such as wine or beer. The report concluded that eating approximately three servings (90 grams) of whole grains daily reduces the risk of colorectal cancer by 17 percent. It adds to previous evidence showing that foods containing fiber decreases the risk of this cancer.
In the US, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer among both men and women, with an estimated 371 cases diagnosed each day. AICR estimates that 47 percent of US colorectal cancer cases could be prevented each year through healthy lifestyle changes. [The report.]