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It has long been known that dogs get cancers, from similar chemical exposures as humans (e.g., lymphoma from exposure to weed-killer 2,4-D on lawns). A recent study found that Scottish terriers exposed to cigarette smoke develop bladder cancer about 6 times more than terriers not exposed to cigarette smoke.

Dogs can be viewed as "sentinel species" or early warning systems for harmful chemical exposures. This is because they show risks or dangers due to chemical exposures in the environment earlier than humans. They live alongside humans and so are exposed to the same things as humans.

By the way, smoking is also considered a major risk factor in human urinary bladder cancers.

From Futurity (site that publishes research news from universities): CIGARETTE SMOKE MAY SPIKE DOGS’ BLADDER CANCER RISK

By assessing individual dogs and studying their medical history, scientists are beginning to untangle the question of who gets cancer and why, and how best to detect, treat, and prevent it. ...continue reading "Cigarette Smoke and Bladder Cancer In Dogs"

Another study finding a link with low levels of vitamin D and a health problem - this time an increased risk of bladder cancer. Vitamin D is frequently called the "sunshine vitamin" because sunlight is the best source of vitamin D (our body makes vitamin D3 from sunlight exposure on our bare skin). If you take vitamin D supplements, look for vitamin D3 (rather than D2). From Medical Xpress:

Low vitamin D levels linked to increased risk of bladder cancer

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing bladder cancer, according to a systematic review of seven studies presented today at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Brighton. Though further clinical studies are needed to confirm the findings, the study adds to a growing body of evidence on the importance of maintaining adequate vitamin D levels.

Vitamin D, which is produced by the body through exposure to sunshine, helps the body control calcium and phosphate levels. Vitamin D can also be obtained from food sources such as fatty fish and egg yolks. Previous studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with a host of health problems including cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, autoimmune conditions, and cancer.

In this work, researchers from the University of Warwick and University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire, Coventry and the investigated the link between vitamin D and bladder cancer risk. They reviewed seven studies on the topic which ranged from having 112 to 1125 participants each. Five out of the seven studies linked low vitamin D levels to an increased risk of bladder cancer.

In a separate experiment, the researchers then looked at the cells that line the bladder, known as transitional epithelial cells, and found that these cells are able to activate and respond to vitamin D, which in turn can stimulate an immune response. According to lead author of the study Dr Rosemary Bland, this is important because the immune system may have a role in cancer prevention by identifying abnormal cells before they develop into cancer. "....our work suggests that low levels of vitamin D in the blood may prevent the cells within the bladder from stimulating an adequate response to abnormal cells," said Dr Bland.