Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is typically treated with antibiotics. This study may go a long way in explaining why some people do not seem to respond to Lyme disease treatment, and why they continue to feel sick even after prolonged antibiotic therapy. The researchers discussed how, in addition to the familiar spirochete form, B. burgdorferi can transform from spirochetes into round body forms in the presence of various unfavorable environmental conditions, including the presence of antimicrobial agents (antibiotics). And that the different forms respond to different antibiotic treatments!
But now they found that this bacterium has an additional form, which they refer to as biofilm, and which may be resistant to even very aggressive antibiotic (antimicrobial) treatments. They say this is the first study that demonstrates the presence of Borrelia biofilm in infected human skin tissues. From Medical Xpress:
In many cases, Lyme disease returns after a patient has completed antibiotic treatment, and this finding may help explain why that occurs, the researchers said. University of New Haven researchers determined that Lyme disease-causing Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria produces a biofilm that makes it up to 1,000 times more resistant to antibiotics than other bacteria.
The discovery may lead to new ways to treat Lyme disease, said study author Eva Sapi, head of biology and environmental sciences at the university. "These findings could change the way we think about Lyme disease, especially in patients where it seems to be a persistent disease, despite long-term antibiotic treatment," she said in a news release from the Connecticut-based university.
"This recent finding could help to better understand how Borrelia can survive treatment and ... will provide novel therapeutic targets for chronic Lyme disease, with the hope of eradicating Borrelia in these patients," Sapi added. (original study)
Borrelia burgdorferi Credit: CDC