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Are you exercising frequently? No? Perhaps you need a good motivating reason. Recent study results provide a good reason (brain health!) for all of us to exercise or do some form of of moderate physical activity for at least 2 1/2 hours per week.

A study conducted in Germany found evidence of an association between cardiorespiratory fitness and brain health, particularly in gray matter volume and total brain volume. The researchers found that higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with larger brain volumes in several brain regions that are involved with cognitive functioning.

The study found that exercise (which improves cardiorespiratory fitness) was especially beneficial for older adults. This is because there is some shrinkage of brain volume in normal aging, as well as in some diseases - thus want to prevent brain volume shrinkage as much as possible.

For example, one of the areas of the brain that that had greater volume with cardiorespiratory fitness was the hippocampus. The hippocampus plays a central role in memory-related functions and in stress regulation. This is an important finding because shrinking of the hippocampus (atrophy) is associated with several diseases and disorders, such as Alzheimer disease, depression, and schizophrenia.

What exactly is cardiorespiratory fitness? Cardiorespiratory fitness refers to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during physical activity. It is a big part of physical fitness and can be improved through regular physical activity, such as exercise. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower risk of heart disease and metabolic syndrome.

Bottom line: Get out and move, move, move to improve your cardiorespiratory fitness and so also benefit the brain. After all, we all want to prevent brain volume shrinkage (and cognitive decline) if at all possible. By the way, other studies also find beneficial brain effects from regular physical activity and exercise, even light physical activity.

...continue reading "Physical Activity Is Beneficial For The Brain"

Adding fluoride to municipal drinking water has been controversial for years, with much debate over benefits (prevention of tooth decay) vs health concerns. Especially worrisome are recent studies finding that fluoride in drinking water may have negative effects on children's IQ, whether the fluoride exposure occurs during pregnancy or infancy.

Canadian researchers found that babies that drank formula mixed with fluoridated water had a lower IQ at age 3 to 4 than exclusively breastfed children. [Breastfeeding results in much lower levels of fluoride exposure, even when the mothers drink fluoridated tap water. This is because only limited amounts wind up in breast milk.]

As in the USA, some Canadian communities fluoridate their water while others don't. Exposure to increasing levels of fluoride in tap water (even at government recommended "optimal" levels) was associated with lower IQ scores (especially non-verbal intellectual abilities) in the children. The more the fluoride exposure, the bigger the effect. In other words, studies suggest that fluoride is a neurotoxicant in that it negatively affects the developing brain.

What to do? Try to breastfeed your baby for 6 months. But if using formula and your municipal water has added fluoride - try to mix the formula with unfluoridated bottled water, especially water in glass bottles (because plastic leaches and has more microplastics in it.

From Beyond Pesticides: Fluoride In Science News Again, This Time For Effects On Children's IQ  ...continue reading "Time To Reconsider Adding Fluoride To Drinking Water?"

Several recent studies have highlighted the negative effects of air pollution on the brain, specifically from the tiniest particles in polluted air (called PM 2.5). These tiny particles get to the human brain and cause all sorts of damage. Even at levels within government guidelines.

Two studies found that with higher chronic (daily) exposure to PM2.5 air pollution there were structural changes to the brain. Which is negative to brain health, of course.

With chronic exposure to higher levels of  PM2.5 air pollution: one study found greater declines in memory and more Alzheimer's-like brain atrophy in older women in the USA; and the second study found that higher prenatal exposure was associated with a smaller corpus callosum (a part of the brain) later in childhood. Thus structural changes in the brain!

The tiniest particles are 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter, about 1/30th the width of human hair - and referred to as PM2.5. These fine particles are produced by all sorts of combustion, including motor vehicles, power plants, residential wood burning, agricultural burning, some industrial processes, and forest fires. Typically there is much more exposure to PM2.5 in busy urban streets, and less in quiet suburban streets.

Researchers in Barcelona, Spain found that long-term higher prenatal exposure to PM2.5 particulate matter, especially during the last trimester of pregnancy, is associated with a smaller corpus callosum in children between the ages of 8 and 12 years. This is an important finding because a smaller (reduced volume) corpus callosum is found in ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), ASD (autism spectrum disorder), and hyperactivity. So here we see a structural change in the brain from air pollution at PM2.5 levels that are considered acceptable (within guidelines) by the European Union!

A report called The State of Global Air/2018 stated that studies show that long-term exposure to PM2.5  particles in the air "is the most consistent and robust predictor" of death from heart disease and stroke, lung cancer, and respiratory illnesses. And then there are nitrogen oxides and ozone, which are also linked to death. There are also nanoparticles (e.g., from friction of tires being used) that penetrate deep into the human body.

A 2018 The Guardian article called air pollution "the new tobacco". And that it's time to tackle this epidemic. Yup. Unfortunately, current air pollution standards are being relaxed in all sorts of ways under the current U.S. administration. Beware!

First study. Excerpts from Medical Xpress: Exposure to PM 2.5 pollution linked to brain atrophy, memory decline  ...continue reading "Air Pollution and the Brain, Part 1"

Generations of people were raised thinking that when a person sleeps, that the brain is also resting. Well.... that was then, but the new view is that when we are sleeping, a number of important things are occurring. A main activity during sleep is that the brain is flushing out the garbage, that is, waste products or toxins. [Some other stuff going on includes cell repair, building of bone and muscle, memory consolidation, and strengthening of the immune system.]

A team of Boston researchers found that first a wave of electrical signal in the neurons of the brain occurs (known as a slow wave), and seconds after that a pulse of cerebrospinal fluid washes through the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the liquid that flows through the brain and spinal cord. The researchers, who studied sleeping humans, said that the waves were like a really slow wash cycle in the brain, and that this was happening every 20 seconds during deep sleep (non-rapid eye movement sleep). Their thinking is that the fluid washes away toxins associated with Alzheimer's disease.

Bottom line: Make sure to get enough sleep! Your health depends on it.

From NPR: How Deep Sleep May Help The Brain Clear Alzheimer's Toxins

The brain waves generated during deep sleep appear to trigger a cleaning system in the brain that protects it against Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases.  ...continue reading "The Brain Flushes Out Waste and Toxins During Deep Sleep"

The evidence is building, study by study, that we are all exposed to a mixture of hormone disrupting chemicals (endocrine disruptors) on a daily basis, and that these have serious health effects, including on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Researchers found that early prenatal exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting chemicals  was associated with lower levels of cognitive functioning (lower IQ scores) at age seven, particularly among boys.

Researchers in New York City and Sweden looked at the impact of 26 endocrine disrupting chemicals during pregnancy on 718 Swedish mother-child pairs. It appeared that the higher the exposure during pregnancy, the more of an effect at age 7. Especially harmful was the BPA replacement chemical BPF - this is because it is chemically related to BPA.

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) include bisphenols (BPA and its replacement  chemicals, such as BPF - used in products called "BPA free"), phthalates (especially used in vinyl products), parabens, chemicals used in flame retardants and non-stick coatings,  and some pesticides (e.g. the commonly used chlorpyrifos).

Especially worrisome is that while scientists typically test chemicals one at a time to determine their safety, in the real world we are all exposed to mixtures of these chemicals in our food, consumer products (including personal care products and cosmetics), and environment. Some of these chemicals can cross the placenta during pregnancy and so have an effect on the developing the fetus, including brain and neurological development. Yes, some of these chemicals are only in the body for a short time, but during critical developmental  stages, the effects can be big - even at very low exposures.

Bottom line: If trying to conceive a child or during pregnancy, try to minimize exposure to plastics, pesticides, flame retardants, non-stick cookware, stain-proofing (in fabric and rugs), fragrances and scented products (including air fresheners and dryer sheets), and food stored in cans and plastic containers. Avoid triclosan, anti-odor, antibacterial, anti-germ products and clothing. Avoid parabens (in lotions, etc). Read labels. Glass and stainless steel is perfectly fine. Use unscented or fragrance free products as much as possible.

From Medical Xpress: Chemicals in consumer products during early pregnancy related to lower IQ   ...continue reading "Pregnancy, Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, and Lower IQ"

Very depressing news about football. A study looking at those who played football long-term (as a career in adulthood) found that for every year of playing tackle football (lots of pounding and repeated head collisions), a person's risk of developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) increases by 30%. The researchers from the Boston Univ. School of Medicine arrived at this conclusion after looking at 266 deceased former amateur and professional football players.

What was different about this study was that they compared football players who did not develop CTE with those who did - so the researchers thought it was representative of career football players.

The study results make total sense, but are horrifying because of all the children in the US growing up and playing tackle football from a young age. Other studies find brain changes from just playing some semesters in high school or college or before the age of 12.

From Futurity: CTE RISK GOES UP 30% FOR EACH YEAR OF PLAYING FOOTBALL  ...continue reading "Football May Not Be A Good Career Choice"

Walking is important for health, but walking speed is also important. It turns out that slow walking speed or gait (particularly when trying to walk as fast as possible) is a problem sign already in mid-life (the 40s). Researchers found that slow walking speed is a sign of "accelerated aging",  and that slow walkers exhibited such signs as reduced brain volume, cortical thinning, and reduced brain surface area.

The Duke University researchers found that a slow walking speed at midlife was associated with poorer mental functioning, and that there was an average difference of 16 IQ points between the slowest and fastest walkers. The researchers point out that this matches other studies showing that there is an association of slow walking speed of older adults and cognitive impairment and risk of dementia. The researchers viewed midlife gait speed as a summary of life-long aging, and felt that some differences were apparent already at the age of three. [This was a 5 decade long study in New Zealand of 904 persons.]

From Medical Xpress: Slower walkers have older brains and bodies at 45

The walking speed of 45-year-olds, particularly their fastest walking speed without running, can be used as a marker of their aging brains and bodies ...continue reading "Are You A Slow Or Fast Walker?"

A recently published study found that a strong ability in languages may help reduce the risk of dementia. The study of 325 Roman Catholic nuns (75 years or older) in the United States found some differences in the 109 women (33.5%) who developed dementia later in life compared to those who didn't. They found that more years of education was protective. Those speaking 2 or more languages were less likely to develop dementia than women only speaking one language (35% developed dementia) with 4 or more languages the most protective (only 6% of these women developed dementia). However, speaking 2 or more languages did not significantly affect the age at onset of dementia.

But the strongest predictor of later developing dementia was written linguistic ability, especially "idea density". Idea density was viewed as the average number of ideas expressed per 10 written words.180 of the women provided autobiographical essays that they had written decades earlier (in early adulthood) and the researchers looked at the essays for idea density and grammatical complexity. The researchers suggested that written linguistic ability was a measure of "cognitive function" or brain health.

From Science Daily: What multilingual nuns can tell us about dementia  ...continue reading "Does Speaking Several Languages Lower the Risk of Dementia?"

Two recent studies point out the dangers of air pollution to the developing fetus. The first study found an association with high levels of air pollution during pregnancy and lower IQ years later when the children were between the ages of 4 to 6 (as compared to women exposed to less traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy).

The second study found that soot (tiny carbon particles) from air pollution  (e.g. vehicle exhaust) are breathed in by the pregnant woman, and then make it to her placenta during pregnancy and cross over to the baby's side of the placenta. (The placentas were collected and examined after delivery.) The fact that these tiny particles found in polluted air are breathed in by the pregnant woman and reach the baby's side of the placenta and accumulate, suggests to the researchers how air pollution causes harm to the fetus. They also found that the more particles the pregnant woman was exposed to throughout pregnancy, the more particles were detected on the baby's side of the placenta ("placental load").

The placenta used to be viewed as a barrier to toxins, but NOPE - it's not. (As we already know with alcohol and drugs, etc.)

But now some good news: In the first study, pregnant women who had higher levels of folate in their blood - meaning they had better nutrition and higher intake of folic acid during pregnancy, appeared to have a protective effect on the developing baby. As the researchers said: "Maternal folate levels may modify the impact of prenatal air pollution exposure on child cognition." In those with the lowest folate levels during pregnancy, the negative effects of air pollution during pregnancy on the developing fetus appeared to be the strongest (6.8 points lower IQ). Folate is naturally occurring in many fruits, vegetables, beans, peas, and nuts, and is in the form of folic acid in vitamin supplements. Best is a good diet.

From Medical Xpress: Offspring of pregnant women exposed to high level of pollutants may have lower IQs   ...continue reading "Air Pollution Has Harmful Effects During Pregnancy"

Pesticides are harmful to developing brains, especially during pregnancy. A number of studies have already found that higher exposure to organophosphate pesticides during pregnancy is linked to poorer cognitive functioning and behavior problems in children. A recent University of California study actually looked at the brain activity in 95 teenagers while they were doing a number of mental tasks. Using advanced brain imaging, they found altered brain activity in those teens who had the highest organophosphate pesticide exposure prenatally. These teenagers live in Salinas Valley, California - an agricultural area with many farms.

The researchers point out that "Over 800 million pounds of pesticide active ingredients are applied in the United States each year, with organophosphates (OPs) the most commonly applied class of insecticides. Exposure to OP pesticides, which are endocrine-disrupting compounds, is widespread in the US population, including among pregnant women and children." [PLEASE NOTE: Conventional farming uses organophosphates. Organic farming does not allow the use of organophosphates.]

The main way people get exposed to organophosphate pesticides is diet - especially pesticide residues on fruits and vegetables. Also, if people live near farms where such pesticides are used, or live with a person who works on a farm. They bring home the pesticides on their clothes. People also breathe breathe in pesticides when they are applied on nearby farms or properties due to pesticide drift.

Chlorpyrifos is one example of an organophosphate pesticide. It is considered so dangerous to the developing fetus and children (lower IQs, neurological effects, behavioral effects) that the EPA was going to ban it in the United States. However, the Trump administration overruled the ban (chemical/pesticide lobbyists at work!). Since then, several states (NY, Hawaii, California) have enacted legislation to ban all use of chlorpyrifos in those states, but it will take several years for the bans to become fully in effect.

From Science Daily: Prenatal pesticide exposure linked to changes in teen's brain activity   ...continue reading "Certain Pesticides Linked to Altered Brain Activity In Teenagers"