A new study found differences in gut microbes between active women (they exercised at least the recommended amount) and those that are sedentary. When the gut bacteria were analyzed with modern tests (genetic sequencing) the active women had more of the health promoting beneficial bacteria such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis, and Akkermansia muciniphila than the sedentary women. The sedentary women also had some bacterial species not seen in the active women. The researchers said that exercise "modifies the composition of gut microbiota" (the gut microbes) in a way beneficial for health.
And what is the recommended minimal amount of exercise? The World Health Organization recommends at least 3 days of exercise per week for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity. Note that exercise can mean doing exercises, but it can also include walking briskly, intense housework (scrubbing, vacuuming with lots of bending, etc.), gardening (digging, raking, etc), or shoveling snow, etc. In this study the group of active women had at least 3 hours of physical exercise per week. Note that a sedentary lifestyle is associated with a high incidence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes, while physical exercise or activity has metabolic and immune health benefits (prevents disease).
But...reading the full study, the research also showed that the active group ate more fruits and vegetables - which we know has an effect on the gut microbiome and feeds beneficial bacteria. Although the diets of the 2 groups of women were similar in total carbohydrates, protein and fat content eaten, the active women ate more fruits, vegetables, and fiber, and the sedentary group ate more processed meat. So it looks like both exercise and a good amount of fruits and vegetables may be important for nurturing beneficial bacteria. By the way, the 3 species of beneficial bacteria mentioned currently are not found in any probiotic supplements on the market. (Earlier posts on the beneficial F. prausnitzii and Akkermansia muciniphila). From PLoS ONE:
Physical exercise is a tool to prevent and treat some of the chronic diseases affecting the world’s population. A mechanism through which exercise could exert beneficial effects in the body is by provoking alterations to the gut microbiota, an environmental factor that in recent years has been associated with numerous chronic diseases. Here we show that physical exercise performed by women to at least the degree recommended by the World Health Organization can modify the composition of gut microbiota. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16s rRNA gene, eleven genera were found to be significantly different between active and sedentary women. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed higher abundance of health-promoting bacterial species in active women, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis and Akkermansia muciniphila. Moreover, body fat percentage, muscular mass and physical activity significantly correlated with several bacterial populations. In summary, we provide the first demonstration of interdependence between some bacterial genera and sedentary behavior parameters, and show that not only does the dose and type of exercise influence the composition of gut microbiota, but also the breaking of sedentary behavior.
Sedentary lifestyle is associated with a high incidence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Physical exercise is a powerful preventative and treatment intervention that is known to be effective in generating metabolic and immune health benefits. The gut microbiota is essential for processing dietary components and has a major role in shaping the immune system.... Dysbiosis or imbalance in gut microbiota has been associated with many diseases, among which are ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, colon cancer, metabolic syndrome, type I and type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, allergy, asthma, eczema and autism.....Several studies in experimental models have addressed the relationship between gut microbiota composition and physical exercise....Collectively, these findings indicate that modulation of the microbiota by exercise depends not only on the physiological state of the individual, but also on the diet.
A total of 15 phyla were detected, in order of presence: Bacteroidetes (54%), Firmicutes (44%), Proteobacteria (0.96%), Tenericutes (0.39%), Verrucomicrobia (0.11%), Euryarchaeota (0.08%), Actinobacteria (0.07%), Lentisphaerae (0.06%), Cyanobacteria (0.050%), Spirochaetes (0.04%), Fusobacteria (0.014%), Elusimicrobia (0.009%), Synergistetes (0.007%), kTM7 (0.003%), and Acidobacteria (0.0001%). Acidobacteria (2 subjects), Elusimicrobia (2 subjects) and Spirochaetes (2 subjects) phyla were detected only in sedentary subjects.... At the genus level, there were significant differences in eleven genera: Bifidobacterium, Barnesiellaceae, Odoribacter, Paraprevotella, Turicibacter, Clostridiales, Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, and two unknown genera of Ruminococcaceae family. Given the importance of some bacterial species in health, the presence of Bifidobacterium longum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis, Akkermansia muciniphila was measured by qPCR. Analyses revealed a more significant abundance of F. prautznnii, R. hominis and A. muciniphila in active than in sedentary women.
Among all the genera studied, the abundance of eleven of them was significantly different between the active and sedentary group, with Paraprevotella and an unclassified genus of the Desulfovibrionaceae family specifically associated with sedentarism parameters, while the remaining genera where largely associated with diet parameters.....Nonetheless, as exercise and diet often go hand in hand, an active lifestyle is frequently associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables, whereas sedentarism is associated with the consumption of high-calorie and fatty foods. Indeed, exercise interventions in human populations have resulted in an improvement in diet habits. Although the diets were similar in our study regarding total carbohydrates, protein and fat content, significant differences were observed for fiber (higher in the active group) and processed meat (higher in the sedentary group).