Skip to content

The Paleo diet has been around for years and yet it continues to be controversial. The debate is whether following the Paleo diet long-term has health benefits or not? Supporters of the Paleo (Paleolothic) diet say it promotes gut health and is good for gut microbes, but recent research findings are a strike against this claim. The Paleo diet is based on the hypothesis that humans have not adapted to eating products of agricultural farming such as grains, dairy products, or legumes (beans), as well as all processed foods, so they should be avoided. Instead it stresses eating meat, fish, eggs, nuts, (some) fruits, and vegetables.

So what were the new research findings?  Australian researchers found that people who had been on a Paleo diet for more than a year ate lower amounts of resistant starch, and so had a different bacteria profile in the gut - with lower levels of some beneficial species. They also had high levels of a biomarker in the blood (trimethylamine-n-oxide or TMAO) that is linked to heart disease.

The problem seems to be the lower intake of resistant starch - which is a carbohydrate that resists digestion in the small intestine and ferments in the large intestine. As the fibers ferment they act as a prebiotic and feed the beneficial bacteria in the gut. More than one type of resistant starch can be present in a single food. And what foods contain resistant starches? Precisely some foods avoided in the Paleo diet: grains, rice, beans, peas, lentils, plantains, and green bananas. A number of studies find health benefits (e.g. gut health) from eating foods with resistant starches.

From Medical Xpress: Heart disease biomarker linked to paleo diet

People who follow the paleo diet have twice the amount of a key blood biomarker linked closely to heart disease, the world's first major study examining the impact of the diet on gut bacteria has found.  ...continue reading "Problems With Paleo Diet?"

New research once again confirms that raw fruits and vegetables result in a person ingesting lots of microbes. Millions of bacteria. Which is considered beneficial for our gut microbiome! What's interesting in the latest study looking at bacteria in both conventionally and organically grown apples is that organic apples are a better source of bacteria - that their bacteria are more diverse, distinct, and balanced (when compared to conventionally grown apples).

The Austrian researchers (Wassermann et al) wrote in the Frontiers In Microbiology: "Our results suggest that we consume about 100 million bacterial cells with one apple. Although this amount was the same, the bacterial composition was significantly different in conventionally and organically produced apples."

Interestingly, there were a lot of beneficial Lactobacillus species in the organic apples, but not conventionally grown ones. The researchers thought that the diverse microbiome of organic apples probably limits or hampers harmful microbes (human pathogens). The researchers also wrote: "The described microbial patterns in organic apples resemble the impact of apple polyphenols on human health, which have not only been shown to alleviate allergic symptoms (Zuercher et al., 2010), but also to promote growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the human gut and to reduce abundance of food-borne pathogens."

Another bonus of eating organic apples is that it means avoiding pesticides that are routinely sprayed on conventional fruit. So eat away! Microbes, fiber, and nutrients all in one small fruit!

Fun fact: The researchers write that apples are the most consumed fruit world-wide. Excerpts from Science Daily: An apple carries about 100 million bacteria -- good luck washing them off  ...continue reading "Excellent Reason To Eat Apples: The Bacteria"

New research is raising questions about the role of gut bacteria in how people react to medications and whether the medicines are effective, at least some medications such as L-dopa treatment for Parkinson's disease. Why do medicines work for some people and not others? Perhaps the gut microbes are playing a part by interacting with the medicines! The gut microbes may actually be breaking down medicines and preventing them from reaching their target.

Researchers from Harvard University and University of California found that the composition of the gut microbes has an effect on whether the medicine L-dopa is effective or becomes ineffective as a Parkinson's disease treatment. They found that some bacteria can inactivate the medicine. Definitely research that needs following up on. Also, which medications is this true for?

Excerpts from Science Daily: Gut microbes eat our medication    ...continue reading "Gut Bacteria Has An Effect On Some Medicines?"

How frequently do you eat foods with nanoparticles in them? The use of nanoparticles in foods is increasing every year, with the result that people may eat foods with them daily (thus having chronic exposure). Nanoparticles in foods are ingredients so small that they are measured in nanometers or billionths of one meter. The most common nanoparticle is the food additive titanium dioxide, which in Europe is known as E171. Titanium dioxide is added to many processed foods, candy, and even supplements  and non-prescription medicines (e.g. antihistamines) as a "coloring" to make foods whiter or brighter. Currently there are no restrictions on using titanium dioxide nanoparticles in foods.

We still know very little about whether titanium dioxide nanoparticles have health risks to humans, but studies suggest they may cause intestinal inflammation, may disrupt gut microbes, and may migrate to other parts of the body. Now another study is raising more questions about the safety of titanium dioxide in food. It was done in mice, but the researchers feel it applies to humans. The researchers found that titanium dioxide resulted in a "pro-inflammatory environment and biofilm formation" in the intestines of the mice, and in this way could predispose humans to conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. Bottom line: Read food ingredient lists!

From Science  Daily: Common food additive found to affect gut microbiota

...continue reading "Do You Eat Foods With Nanoparticles In Them?"

Two years ago a study was published showing good results in 18 children with autism who received fecal transplants. Fecal transplants involves giving stool (along with all the microbes in the stool) from a healthy donor to a recipient. After getting fecal transplants, the children (ages 7 to 16) had significant improvements in their gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. abdominal pain, indigestion, diarrhea, and constipation, and stools), autism related symptoms, and in their gut microbes.

But how did they do long-term? The short answer: great. In fact, the children continued to improve over the next 2 years. Most of their gut symptoms continued to improve, their autism symptoms continued to improve, and their gut microbes kept improving over time - with significant increases in bacterial diversity (considered good), and with more Bifidobacteria and Prevotella. A professional evaluator found an average 45% reduction in core autism symptoms (language, social interaction and behavior) at two years after the initial treatment (compared with before the original treatment).

It has long been known that many persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) experience chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and research shows that children with ASD have distinctive gut microbiomes (as compared to neurotypical children). Researchers believe there is a link between the gut and brain (the gut-brain axis), so a therapeutic approach could be to "modify" the gut microbes. Which is what the researchers did - in a 10 week process they call Microbiota Transfer Therapy (MTT). First they gave antibiotics, then a bowel cleanse, a stomach-acid suppressant, a fecal transplant (FMT) followed by many days of low purified doses taken orally.

From Science Daily: Autism symptoms reduced nearly 50 percent two years after fecal transplant

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about one in every 59 children in the U.S. is diagnosed with autism, up from one in every 150 in 2000.  ...continue reading "Reductions In Autism Symptoms Two Years After Fecal Transplants"

Researchers have known for a while that human breast milk contains hundreds of species of bacteria that a baby ingests while feeding. This is good! The bacteria is seeding the baby's gut microbiome (microbial community). A recent study of breast milk from different continents found that breast milk from healthy mothers also contains species of fungi - which is the breast milk mycobiome. What was noteworthy was that some  types of fungi in breast milk were found among breast milk samples from all locations (a fungi "core group"), while other types of fungi varied among breast milk from the different locations and even how the baby was delivered (vaginal or C-section birth).

After analyzing the 80 samples of breast milk (20 from each country: Spain, Finland, South Africa, China) it was found that some fungi were the same in breast milk from the different locations: Malassezia, Davidiella, Sistotrema, and Penicillium, while others were different. Fungi from the genus Cryptococcus were higher in breast milk from women who delivered vaginally (as compared to those who had a C-section).  [Note: Genus ranks above species, but below family, and the written name is capitalized.]

This study confirms the importance of breast milk as a source of microbes (along with many nutrients and protective compounds) to the infant and infant gut. From Science Daily:

Breast milk microbiome contains yeast and fungi: Do these benefit the infant?  ...continue reading "It Is Normal For Fungi To Be In Breast Milk"

Today's topic: BIRTH. Two recent studies have results that question some current medical practices, which are when to cut the umbilical cord, and hospital vs home birth differences in the baby's gut microbes.

The first study makes a case against the current practice of cutting the umbilical cord immediately after birth. University of Rhode Island researchers found that delaying umbilical cord clamping for more than 5 minutes transfers iron rich blood from the placenta to the baby (resulting in about a 30% increase in blood volume). This resulted in babies at 4 months of age having higher iron storage (ferritin) levels and increased brain myelination. Myelin is a fatty material that wraps around nerve cell fibers - think of it as insulation of the brain's wiring.

The second study found that birth at home results in a more diverse microbiome (microbial community) in the baby at birth and one month later - when compared to babies born in hospitals. This study was conducted in the Hudson Valley region of NY state. All babies were born vaginally and were breastfed. Hospital born babies had decreased levels of some bacteria and increased levels of other bacteria (e.g. Clostridium - with other studies finding that higher levels in children is associated with an increased risk of asthma). It was suggested that certain hospital practices may be causing this (sterile drapes, antibiotics, etc.). 

From Medical Xpress: Study shows benefits of delayed cord clamping in healthy babies

A five-minute delay in the clamping of healthy infants' umbilical cords results in increased iron stores and brain myelin in areas important for early-life functional development, a new University of Rhode Island nursing study has found.  ...continue reading "Birth, Cord Clamping, and Some Microbial Differences"

How many times have you heard to eat lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, legumes (beans), and seeds? Study after study finds that eating a diet rich in these foods is linked to all sorts of health benefits. A big reason is that they have lots of fiber - which feeds beneficial microbes in our gut. A recently published review of studies in the prestigious journal Lancet examined studies done over the past 40 years and found numerous health benefits.

The researchers found that people consuming high levels of dietary fiber and whole grains have a lower risk of death from heart disease (cardiovascular mortality) and death from any cause. They also have a lower incidence of heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and colorectal cancer (as compared to those eating less fiber). There was a dose-response effect - in other words, the more fiber eaten daily, the lower the incidence of these diseases and deaths. They also found that a high fiber diet is also linked to lower cholesterol levels, lower weight, and lower blood pressure.

This study viewed 25 to 29 grams per day as a high fiber diet, but said the findings suggest that higher levels of fiber would be even more protective. Which means put down that delicious white bread and sugary cereal and start eating whole grain foods! Nowadays the average person eats less than 20 grams of fiber per day, but guidelines say to eat at least 30 grams per day. The researchers pointed out that getting fiber from real food is best.

From Science Daily: High intake of dietary fiber and whole grains associated with reduced risk of non-communicable diseases

People who eat higher levels of dietary fiber and whole grains have lower rates of non-communicable diseases compared with people who eat lesser amounts, while links for low glycaemic load and low glycaemic index diets are less clear. Observational studies and clinical trials conducted over nearly 40 years reveal the health benefits of eating at least 25g to 29g or more of dietary fiber a day, according to a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in The Lancet.  ...continue reading "Eating Lots of Fiber Has Health Benefits"

6

Today's topic: sinusitis success stories. For those suffering from chronic sinusitis or frequent sinus infections it sounds incredible, doesn't it? For more than 5 years I've posted about the probiotic Lactobacillus sakei and how it can successfully treat sinusitis - both chronic sinusitis and  acute sinusitis (sinus infections). Back in January 2013 I read a study by Abreu et al (2012) that the sinus microbiome (microbial community) in people with chronic sinusitis was imbalanced and that this beneficial bacteria could be a possible treatment. I had suffered from chronic sinusitis for years, so of course I went searching for Lactobacillus sakei. It wasn’t in any probiotics at the time, but I did find it in kimchi. Through experimentation I (and my family) successfully treated our sinusitis by dabbing and smearing a little of the kimchi juice in the nostrils once or twice a day. It felt miraculous!

By the end of 2013 I started this blog to get the word out about Lactobacillus sakei, and to also hear the experiences of others. (See results post) In the last 5 years I have heard from hundreds of people, including lots of sinusitis success stories with Lactobacillus sakei – especially using kimchi, sauerkraut made with garlic, sausage starter cultures such as Bactoferm F-RM-52, and recently with the sinusitis probiotic Lanto Sinus, which was introduced in 2018. When a Lactobacillus sakei product works as a sinusitis treatment for a person it feels absolutely wonderful and amazing. Sinus health after years of suffering! Unfortunately, it appears that Lactobacillus sakei may not work for everyone - only trying it determines if it works and how well.

The following are excerpts of some of the sinusitis success stories that people have reported - almost all are from comments after posts on this site, and a few from emails to me. Sometimes we need to hear successful treatment stories, especially if we’ve been struggling with sinusitis for a long time. Just keep in mind that these are stories of people experimenting on their own - how they used Lactobacillus sakei varies and their experiences vary. (See Sinusitis Treatment Summary for methods). Note that in Feb. 2019 the Lacto Sinus name was changed to Lanto Sinus in order to get a trademark - but the product remains exactly the same.

J. October 2017
So glad I found this site! Have been struggling with chronic sinus and gut issues go over 20 years after several rounds of antibiotics.
Immediately after reading thru this I put a dab of Kimchi juice up each nostril (had some on hand, as I eat a lot of fermented veggies). I could tell almost immediately that something was happening. Almost felt as if there was a duel going on in my sinuses between the kimchi probiotics and the nasties in my sinuses. Had some stuffiness and stiff neck but went to bed and slept great last night and woke up this morning with clearer sinuses and feeling better!

Jo. October 2015
Through the years I've tried everything for sinus infections and nothing but antibiotics helped. When I read about kimchi helping I tried that too. To my utter delight and relief, Sunja's white kimchi worked a miracle! I bought another 3 jars and keep it in the refrigerator for the next bout.

M. November 2018
I had great success in treating my chronic sinusitis with Lacto Sinus.
I’ve had sinus problems for 2 decades and tried all sorts of medicines and treatments, but nothing helped. Every single sore throat and every cold, no matter how minor, led to full-blown sinusitis and having to take antibiotics for weeks. I was always in fear of getting sick. And even when I was “healthy” I really wasn’t, I always had some symptoms. I would frequently wake up with a sore throat and with thick phlegm dripping down my throat.
I was desperate when I tried Lacto Sinus and was thrilled to see improvement within a day! I used it daily for over a week, then every other day for about 2 more weeks. And then I stopped because I didn’t need it anymore.
Getting my life and health back feels like a miracle! I don’t dread getting a cold or virus anymore – I just use some Lacto Sinus again if I get some sinus symptoms. I will always keep a bottle in my refrigerator.

T. January 2017  ...continue reading "Sinusitis Success Stories"

Are bacteria living in healthy human brains? It has long been thought that the brain is protected by the blood-brain barrier, that the brain is sterile (bacteria are not normally there), and if there are bacteria in the brain, then that means a serious disease (e.g. meningitis).  However, the research team of Rosalind Roberts, Charlene Farmer, and Courtney Walker (at the University of Alabama) found bacteria in the brains they studied with electron microscopes.

The brains showed no inflammation (thus the bacteria were not pathogenic), and modern tests (genetic sequencing) showed that they were gut bacteria. Which  means they got there from the gut. If further research supports their findings, then this would be a paradigm shift -  a new way of thinking about the brain and microbes.

Two good articles discuss this research - the first is in Science, and the second is a fascinating interview of Rosalind Roberts about this research. Excerpts from the article written by Michael Segal in Nautilus:

Are There Bacteria in Your Brain?

...continue reading "Are Bacteria Living In Healthy Brains?"