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Researchers have known for a while that human breast milk contains hundreds of species of bacteria that a baby ingests while feeding. This is good! The bacteria is seeding the baby's gut microbiome (microbial community). A recent study of breast milk from different continents found that breast milk from healthy mothers also contains species of fungi - which is the breast milk mycobiome. What was noteworthy was that some  types of fungi in breast milk were found among breast milk samples from all locations (a fungi "core group"), while other types of fungi varied among breast milk from the different locations and even how the baby was delivered (vaginal or C-section birth).

After analyzing the 80 samples of breast milk (20 from each country: Spain, Finland, South Africa, China) it was found that some fungi were the same in breast milk from the different locations: Malassezia, Davidiella, Sistotrema, and Penicillium, while others were different. Fungi from the genus Cryptococcus were higher in breast milk from women who delivered vaginally (as compared to those who had a C-section).  [Note: Genus ranks above species, but below family, and the written name is capitalized.]

This study confirms the importance of breast milk as a source of microbes (along with many nutrients and protective compounds) to the infant and infant gut. From Science Daily:

Breast milk microbiome contains yeast and fungi: Do these benefit the infant?  ...continue reading "It Is Normal For Fungi To Be In Breast Milk"

Many health professionals have warned for years that the antibacterial triclosan should be avoided. Triclosan is found in a large variety of personal and consumer products labeled "antibacterial" or "antimicrobial". Now a recent study gives another reason to avoid triclosan - it makes UTI (urinary tract infection) bacteria MORE resistant to antibiotics.

Scientists have been warning about triclosan (and related triclocarbon) for a while, and have asked that their use be restricted due to risks to human health, to wildlifeand its accumulation in water, land, wildlife, and humans. Not only do they persist in the environment, they are also a source of toxic and carcinogenic compounds including dioxins, chloroform, and chlorinated anilines. They are endocrine disruptors that bioaccumulate (build-up) in humans and wildlife. They are toxic to aquatic and other organisms, yet they are found in the majority of people and freshwater streams. In other words, the chemicals are all around us and in us!

More than 2000 personal and consumer products, as well as building materials, contain triclosan and triclocarban. For example, they are found in soaps, toothpastes, detergents, clothing, toys, carpets, plastics, kitchen items, and paints. According to the FDA, which is responsible for regulation of foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, and similar products, there is no evidence that antibacterial soaps are more effective than nonantibacterial soap and water.

What should one do? Read labels and avoid products containing triclosan and other antimicrobials, and products labeled anti-odor, antibacterial, anti-germ, or containing Microban. No, you don't need antibacterial or anti-odor socks or cutting boards! See earlier posts on this topic (herehere, and here).

From Science Daily: Chemical added to consumer products impairs response to antibiotic treatment

Grocery store aisles are stocked with products that promise to kill bacteria. People snap up those items to protect themselves from the germs that make them sick. However, new research from Washington University in St. Louis finds that a chemical that is supposed to kill bacteria is actually making them stronger and more capable of surviving antibiotic treatment.  ...continue reading "Avoid Using Products With the Antimicrobial Triclosan"

In the last few years a number of researchers have suggested that microbes may be triggering or somehow causing Alzheimer's disease. Various microbes have been suggested, and research is finding links with herpes viruses, fungi, other microbes, and gum disease (periodontal disease) microbes. Now another study proposes that the common bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis - which causes chronic periodontal disease, is linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease.

Researchers have suggested that during an initial infection, the "infectious agent" (viruses, etc.) reaches the central nervous system and brain, then stays there in latent form (inactive) for years. And then when the immune system declines with age (which is a normal part of aging) - the microbes (virus, fungi, etc.) become reactivated and cause inflammation and the chain of events leading to Alzheimer's disease.

Note that in the recent study implicating P. gingivalis - the Cortexyme, Inc. company is doing the research and they, of course, are developing a product - so beware of bias. Also, the research done so far is in the earliest stages. But...it is exciting to see if further research (from them and from others) supports some sort of microbe, or several types of microbes, behind the development of Alzheimer's disease. Will we find that there is an "infectious cause" of Alzheimer's disease ("infection-induced neuroinflammation")? Because this means that there is a way to prevent or treat Alzheimer's disease - some sort of antimicrobial, antibiotic, antiviral, or antifungal. Stay tuned for further research.... From Medical Xpress:

Bacterial pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis may contribute to Alzheimer's disease: Study

Cortexyme, Inc., a privately held, clinical-stage pharmaceutical company developing therapeutics to alter the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other degenerative disorders, today announced publication of a foundational paper supporting its approach in Science Advances. In the paper, an international team of researchers led by Cortexyme co-founders Stephen Dominy, M.D. and Casey Lynch detail the role of a common bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), in driving Alzheimer's disease pathology, and demonstrate the potential for small molecule inhibitors to block the pathogen.  ...continue reading "Periodontal Disease Link to Alzheimer’s Disease?"

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What can the amazing beneficial bacteria Lactobacilus sakei treat? We know it can treat sinusitis (sinus infections) - based on the original Abreu et al (2012) research, personal experiences, and feedback from hundreds of people since I started this site in 2013. Can it treat bronchitis? Earaches? How about skin infections? L. sakei dominates over and inhibits growth of pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus. Instead of using antibiotics - what else could L. sakei be used for?

I've been hearing interesting stories from people - a number of people have found that it (kimchi, sauerkraut with garlic, or a L. sakei product such as Lanto Sinus) works to treat coughs (bronchitis), or prevents upper respiratory infections from developing into serious sinus infections, gets rid of fungal balls in the sinuses, treats earaches, and even treats small skin infections. People have been using the various products in creative ways - all self-experimentation!

The experiences of some people contacting me, as well as family members (including myself) - is that it treated bronchitis and coughs for which they would have taken antibiotics in the past - by swishing L. sakei powder (such as Lanto Sinus) in the mouth (but not in the nose). For example, one person reported that she occasionally gets bronchitis, but never sinusitis - and she successfully used Lanto Sinus to treat the bronchitis by swishing it in the mouth. The first two days she used it 2 x per day, and after that once per day until she felt better, but not totally well - and when she stopped the bronchitis (cough, phlegm) came back. So she used the L. sakei again until she felt totally healthy - and this time the cough stayed away. Since I personally know this person (we take walks together) I was able to observe her progress - cough & phlegm, then improvement, then backwards slide, and then total health when she used the product again. Hmmm... Definitely wasn't an imaginary effect or wishful thinking (placebo effect).

Not wanting to dab kimchi juice in the nostrils (the usual way to use kimchi) some gargled with kimchi juice and also swished it in the mouth and then didn't eat or drink for a while - but I don't know how the results compare to the usual kimchi method. One person dabbed kimchi juice in the ear for an earache and thought it helped (see Sinusitis Success Stories). For skin infections some individuals mixed L. sakei with a little water and applied to infection - this has been reported for both frozen Bactoferm F-RM-52 and refrigerated Lanto Sinus. But at any rate, the reports from people of various ways to use a L. sakei product are interesting. Just remember - this is all self-experimentation - which means results can be positive, negative, or no effect. And please be cautious!

For ways people use the various Lactobacillus sakei products to treat sinus infections (both chronic sinusitis and acute sinusitis) see the Sinusitis Treatment Summary page. The Best Probiotic For Sinus Infections gives an in-depth look at the different L. sakei products and results.

New research is published every day, but only some studies are big research stories or game-changers. The following are what I consider some of the most memorable studies of 2018 – some in a good way, but some of the others have left me with a sense of horror. I think there will be follow-up research, so keep an eye out for more on these important topics.

Are we heading toward a time in the not so distant future when all men are infertile? (Due to exposure to all the endocrine disruptors around us.) Will All Men Eventually Be Infertile? This was posted September 5, 2018.

Researchers are now seriously investigating and finding evidence that microbes may be causing Alzheimer’s disease. This approach is rapidly finding support in the medical field, and may lead to possible ways to treat or prevent the disease. Possible Herpes Virus Link to Alzheimer’s Disease was posted July 13, 2018, and Herpes Viruses and Alzheimer's Disease on  June 22, 2018.

Type 2 Diabetes May Be Reversed With Weight Loss was posted August 10, 2018. This study and an earlier similar study from 2016 found that losing over 30 pounds over a short period can reverse type 2 diabetes - 46% in the 2018 study and 60% (in people who had it less than 10 years) in the earlier study.

More and more evidence is accumulating that certain diets are anti-inflammatory. Especially beneficial are diets rich in fruits, vegetables, seeds, nuts, legumes (beans), and whole grains - which also have a lot of fiber. This is exciting research because chronic low-grade inflammation is linked to a number of chronic diseases (heart disease, cancer, etc.). Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains Lower Inflammation – posted August 1, 2018.

[Related to this last topic is one of the most eye-opening studies I have ever read on how what one eats has a quick effect on gut microbes and health of the gut (including inflammation of the colon): Changing Diet Has Big Effect On Colon Cancer Risk – posted April 28, 2015.]

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Today's topic: sinusitis success stories. For those suffering from chronic sinusitis or frequent sinus infections it sounds incredible, doesn't it? For more than 5 years I've posted about the probiotic Lactobacillus sakei and how it can successfully treat sinusitis - both chronic sinusitis and  acute sinusitis (sinus infections). Back in January 2013 I read a study by Abreu et al (2012) that the sinus microbiome (microbial community) in people with chronic sinusitis was imbalanced and that this beneficial bacteria could be a possible treatment. I had suffered from chronic sinusitis for years, so of course I went searching for Lactobacillus sakei. It wasn’t in any probiotics at the time, but I did find it in kimchi. Through experimentation I (and my family) successfully treated our sinusitis by dabbing and smearing a little of the kimchi juice in the nostrils once or twice a day. It felt miraculous!

By the end of 2013 I started this blog to get the word out about Lactobacillus sakei, and to also hear the experiences of others. (See results post) In the last 5 years I have heard from hundreds of people, including lots of sinusitis success stories with Lactobacillus sakei – especially using kimchi, sauerkraut made with garlic, sausage starter cultures such as Bactoferm F-RM-52, and recently with the sinusitis probiotic Lanto Sinus, which was introduced in 2018. When a Lactobacillus sakei product works as a sinusitis treatment for a person it feels absolutely wonderful and amazing. Sinus health after years of suffering! Unfortunately, it appears that Lactobacillus sakei may not work for everyone - only trying it determines if it works and how well.

The following are excerpts of some of the sinusitis success stories that people have reported - almost all are from comments after posts on this site, and a few from emails to me. Sometimes we need to hear successful treatment stories, especially if we’ve been struggling with sinusitis for a long time. Just keep in mind that these are stories of people experimenting on their own - how they used Lactobacillus sakei varies and their experiences vary. (See Sinusitis Treatment Summary for methods). Note that in Feb. 2019 the Lacto Sinus name was changed to Lanto Sinus in order to get a trademark - but the product remains exactly the same.

J. October 2017
So glad I found this site! Have been struggling with chronic sinus and gut issues go over 20 years after several rounds of antibiotics.
Immediately after reading thru this I put a dab of Kimchi juice up each nostril (had some on hand, as I eat a lot of fermented veggies). I could tell almost immediately that something was happening. Almost felt as if there was a duel going on in my sinuses between the kimchi probiotics and the nasties in my sinuses. Had some stuffiness and stiff neck but went to bed and slept great last night and woke up this morning with clearer sinuses and feeling better!

Jo. October 2015
Through the years I've tried everything for sinus infections and nothing but antibiotics helped. When I read about kimchi helping I tried that too. To my utter delight and relief, Sunja's white kimchi worked a miracle! I bought another 3 jars and keep it in the refrigerator for the next bout.

M. November 2018
I had great success in treating my chronic sinusitis with Lacto Sinus.
I’ve had sinus problems for 2 decades and tried all sorts of medicines and treatments, but nothing helped. Every single sore throat and every cold, no matter how minor, led to full-blown sinusitis and having to take antibiotics for weeks. I was always in fear of getting sick. And even when I was “healthy” I really wasn’t, I always had some symptoms. I would frequently wake up with a sore throat and with thick phlegm dripping down my throat.
I was desperate when I tried Lacto Sinus and was thrilled to see improvement within a day! I used it daily for over a week, then every other day for about 2 more weeks. And then I stopped because I didn’t need it anymore.
Getting my life and health back feels like a miracle! I don’t dread getting a cold or virus anymore – I just use some Lacto Sinus again if I get some sinus symptoms. I will always keep a bottle in my refrigerator.

T. January 2017  ...continue reading "Sinusitis Success Stories"

Whoa.... a recent study examined food microbiomes (community of microbes) of some foods and found that the foods contained many species of microbes - hundreds of species! The foods examined were a variety of masala spice mixes, cilantro, smoked salmon, cucumbers, and mung bean sprouts. Other studies have also found large numbers of bacterial species in all sorts of foods, including raw fruits and vegetables, cheeses, and fermented foods, such as kimchi. There are also bacterial differences between conventional and organic foods. No wonder it's good to eat a diverse diet - all those microbes that you're ingesting! A diverse gut microbial community in humans is considered healthy by researchers.

The researchers (all associated with the US FDA - Food and Drug Administration) looked at the bacterial "species richness" (number of different bacterial species) normally found on the 5 types of foods. They used modern genetic sequencing methods to analyze the food microbiomes and found a LOT of bacterial species ("high bacterial diversity"), as well as species unique to the different foods sampled - whether animal or plant based foods. They found not only beneficial species, but also species associated with food spoilage. Every food had some bacteria that could eventually lead to food spoilage (which makes sense - eventually all foods can spoil). Also, how the food was handled and packaged, as well as moisture levels, influenced the bacterial species found in the foods.

The masala spice mixes were especially rich in bacterial species (from from 968 to 1097) and in unique species (19), but the mixes also contained as many as 17 ingredients. Cucumbers had between 227 and 423 bacterial species, and 216 to 573 species for cilantro. Smoked salmon samples had fewer species - ranging from 89 to 181 species. An example of the diversity is that the cucumber microbiome is comprised of species within Proteobacteria (45 to 85%), Firmicutes (2 to 40%), Actinobacteria (8 to 31%), and Bacteroidetes (0 to 2%).

I don't know if one can ever replenish all the bacteria lost from years of antibiotics (e.g. for sinus infections - both chronic and acute sinusitis), but this is a good reason to eat a variety of foods - for all the species of bacteria. These bacterial species are not found in general probiotic pills - one must eat the foods to ingest the variety and richness of microbes. The researchers wrote: "Once established, the most likely source of new microbes joining our GI microbiome is the food we eat: each food stuff and commodity we consume likely contains a microbiome that passes through our bodies while nutritional ingredients and components are digested."

It is unknown how many of these microbes stick around in our body, but lots of research finds that a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, some fish and meat (including poultry), some dairy - are beneficial to our gut microbiome, along with numerous health benefits. The fiber in these foods is also beneficial in that it feeds beneficial microbes. [see category NUTRITION for research, also Feeding Your Gut Microbes page.]

Excerpts from research by Karen G. jarvis et al in Frontiers In Microbiology:

Microbiomes Associated With Foods From Plant and Animal Sources

...continue reading "Common Foods Contain Hundreds Of Diverse Bacterial Species"

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Probiotics are the future of sinusitis treatment. Research found that a probiotic (beneficial bacteria) that is lacking in those with chronic sinusitis and which successfully treats sinusitis is Lactobacillus sakei. This article is the full summary of what has been learned over the past 6 years: the best L. sakei  products (such as kimchi and Lanto Sinus - which can treat even the worst recurring sinus infections), results of people trying various L. sakei products, ways to use the products, and other possible probiotics for sinusitis and sinus health.

Back in 2012, a study by Abreu et al suggested Lactobacillus sakei as a possible treatment for sinusitis. In the past 6 years those conclusions have been supported by the experiences of hundreds of people contacting me, and my family's experiences with L. sakei products. It really is the best sinusitis treatment for most people!  When Lactobacillus sakei works as a treatment - it can seem miraculous as sinusitis symptoms gradually disappear or greatly improve. Unfortunately it doesn't work for everyone - for a minority there seems to be no effect, and it is not clear why. It also doesn't treat allergies or allergy symptoms. (See Treatment Summary page for different ways to use products.) Lactobacillus sakei works best when it is used only when needed, when there are sinus symptoms.

Sinusitis research in the last decade has found that not only do sinusitis sufferers lack L. sakei, they have too much of some other bacteria, and they also don't have the bacteria diversity in their sinuses that healthy people without sinusitis have. In other words, the sinus microbiome (microbial community) is out of whack (dysbiosis) in chronic sinusitis -  with a depletion of some bacterial species, and an increase in "abundance" of other species.

Luckily Lactobacillus sakei is found in some foods (such as some brands of live fermented kimchi), some sausage starter cultures (such as B-2), and recently in some probiotic supplements (e.g. Lanto Sinus). One reason it is used in sausage starter cultures is because L. sakei dominates over and inhibits growth of pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus.

BACKGROUND STORY: Six years ago there were no probiotics containing L. sakei. None. So instead members of my family experimented using a very easy kimchi sinusitis treatment (basically dabbing and smearing kimchi at certain stages of fermentation into the nostrils like a very messy eater) and found that it cured  chronic sinusitis of many years within several weeks. Obviously it contained L. sakei. It felt miraculous, especially because it was so easy to do. (See Sinusitis Treatment Story page for our background story).

After 6 years we still feel great! Generally all 4 of us only need to treat again with a product containing Lactobacillus sakei (we've been using refrigerated Lanto Sinus) after a virus which goes into sinusitis, or if for some other reason we feel like we're sliding into sinusitis. The last few years we've needed to do this far less (and more minimally) than the first year because every year we have improved – fewer colds and viruses, and an improved sinus microbiome. Because we no longer have chronic sinusitis and can easily treat sinusitis if it occurs with L. sakei, we have NOT taken antibiotics or any other bacteria killing spray or product (such as xylitol) for over 6 years. We do not use cortisone or antihistamine nasal sprays either.

WHEN A TREATMENT WORKS: Many of you have contacted me to report your own progress with various sinusitis treatments. Thank you! People used terms such as "miraculous", "transformative", and "fabulous" when they had positive results with a product containing L. sakei. I’ve also heard from a few people of some other beneficial bacteria species that may treat sinusitis. When a treatment works, then all sinusitis symptoms go away, including post nasal drip, sinus headaches, "clogged ears", bad breath, and sinusitis-related coughs. Even tonsil stones! (Please note that trying such products to treat sinusitis is self-experimentation - effects can be positive or negative. One should always be very cautious. Best results are to use L. sakei only when needed.)

OVERALL RESULTSThe majority of people contacting me with results reported positive results (chronic sinusitis greatly improved or totally gone) from some form of L. sakei treatment. Successes have been from the USA, Canada, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and Africa. But since it's from self-experimentation and not a clinical trial, then I don't know the actual percentage of positive results. Some of the people reporting success have had multiple operations, some currently have deviated septums, some with nasal polyps, and all have had long-standing chronic sinusitis, some for decades.

Those same chronic sinusitis sufferers also reported that the same treatments also worked to treat acute sinusitis. It seems that after colds, etc. they (including myself) may develop acute sinusitis again and need re-treatment (apparently the L. sakei frequently doesn't stay or colonize in the sinuses from earlier treatments). However, the sinuses do continue improving over time so our experience has been that fewer and more minimal treatments are needed over the years. Another very small group reported that other probiotic strains helped (but it is not always clear whether they also tried a L. sakei product), and minority of people reported that nothing has helped and there could be a variety of reasons for this (see below). Some people reported that one product helped, but not another - whether kimchi or a L. sakei product.

THREE MAIN PRODUCT CATEGORIES: Currently there are 3 main categories of products containing live Lactobacillus sakei, and which people have reported success in treating sinusitis: kimchi (and some sauerkraut), refrigerated products (e.g. Lanto Sinus), and frozen products. Note that at this time the FDA does not allow any probiotics to be sold as a medical treatment – they can only be sold as a supplement. Using the following products to treat sinusitis is self-experimentation (results are unknown and can vary). Always be cautious when testing a new product. (See Sinusitis Treament Summary page for treatment methods.)

KIMCHI - Many people report that kimchi helped them (without naming brands), while others named brands that helped them. And one person reported a homemade kimchi worked great (he was finally symptom free after 8 years). A few have even mentioned that kimchi has helped sinusitis with fungal problems. Kimchi brands that people reported helping their chronic sinusitis: Sunja's Kimchi (medium spicy cucumber kimchi and mild white kimchi), Sinto Gourmet brand kimchiMama-O's Premium Kimchi, the white Napa kimchi and cabbage kimchi made by Choi's Kimchi Company (in Portland, Oregon), Farmhouse Culture Kimchi (in California), Mother-in-law's KimchiOzuke Kimchi (in Colorado), in the United Kingdom the brand Mr Kimchi, and in Australia Kehoe's Kitchen white kimchi. I'm sure some (many?) other brands also contain L. sakei.

(Not all kimchi brands or types of kimchi within brands contain L. sakei - finding one that has it is due to self-experimentation. The kimchi must be live, and not pasteurized. We found that kimchi may contain L. sakei from about day 14 (or earlier) to about 2 to 2 1/2 months (from the day it's made). When the kimchi contained L. sakei we felt the same or started feeling better within one or 2 days. If we felt more mucusy or phlegmy over the next 2 days, or the acute sinusitis kept getting worse, than it did not contain L. sakei.) Some researchers feel that it's the garlic in kimchi that encourages L. sakei growth.

SAUERKRAUT - Sauerkraut has worked for some people if it is sauerkraut made with garlic. Some researchers feel that it's the garlic in kimchi that encourages L. sakei growth, and sauerkraut typically doesn't contain garlic.]

REFRIGERATED LACTOBACILLUS SAKEI PRODUCTS  – A high-quality refrigerated L. sakei product specifically meant for the sinuses and treatment of sinusitis is sold by Lanto Health. The kimchi derived Lactobacillus sakei product called Lanto Sinus is meant to be used when needed. Lanto Sinus  is sold as a dietary supplement, holds up well in the refrigerator, is effective, reliable, and easy to use. This product ships well because it holds up for a while (days) without refrigeration.

People have reported success using it mixed with bottled water (dabbing, smearing, spooning a little in nostrils), or swishing it dry in the mouth. I’ve been a consultant with Lanto Health on this product and have been testing and using this product successfully for over 2 years (self-experimentation!).    ...continue reading "The Best Probiotic For Sinus Infections"

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I'm always on the lookout for probiotics (beneficial bacteria) that can somehow  suppress or dominate Staphylococcus aureus  - because that bacteria is implicated in many illnesses, including sinusitis. Some strains of S. aureus are antibiotic resistant and the cause of serious illnesses, such as MRSA  (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). However, S. aureus is also found in the microbiomes (microbial communities) of healthy people - including on the skin, nose, and gut - but it appears to reside there harmlessly in healthy people.

So finding species of bacteria that suppress or controls S. aureus is noteworthy. Researchers (from National Institute of Health and Thailand) found that in both humans and mice strains of Bacillus, especially B. subtilis, which is already added to many probiotic products, suppressed all strains of S. aureus. Interestingly, the researchers found no S. aureus in any of the gut and nasal samples from humans where Bacillus species were present.The researchers think that the Bacillus species eradicate S. aureus - in both the gut and nasal passages. So the researchers tested further using mice - they gave B. subtilis to the mice every 2 days, and it eliminated S. aureus in the guts of the mice.

But why did I title this post '"another probiotic" ? Because from research and personal experiences told to me - Lactobacillus sakei seems to have the same effect against S. aureus. Stay tuned for more research with B. subtilis and other probiotics versus S. aureus. [UPDATE: Since I posted this, I've read some concerns over B.subtilis. Be careful.]  From Science Daily:

Probiotic bacillus eliminates staphylococcus bacteria  ...continue reading "Another Probiotic That Treats Infections?"

Many people take probiotics in the belief that the probiotics will help their gut microbiome (microbial community) recover after taking antibiotics. This is because antibiotics kill both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, and research shows it may take months for the gut to recover (it depends on the antibiotics taken). However, 2 studies (in both mice and healthy humans) conducted by a group of researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel challenge that belief. The researchers used both mice and healthy humans in both well-done studies. They found that taking probiotics after a week of antibiotics actually delayed recovery of the gut microbial community in humans - months longer!

In summary: As expected, taking antibiotics had a big effect on the gut microbiome - the researchers wrote "a dramatic impact"  and "profound microbial depletion" (after taking one week of standard doses of "broad-spectrum antibiotics").  However, they found large differences among the 3 groups in gut microbial recovery after antibiotics. The spontaneous recovery group (they did not take probiotics after antibiotics) showed recovery of gut microbes within 3 weeks. The fecal transplant group (of their own fecal microbes which was collected before they took antibiotics) showed gut microbial recovery within 1 day of the fecal microbial transplant. In contrast, the group taking daily  probiotics for 28 days did not show full recovery (to where they were before antibiotics) by day 28, and the gut microbial community was still out of whack (dysbiosis) even 5 months after stopping probiotics (actually even at 180 days when the study ended).

What species were in the probiotics? Eleven species commonly found in ordinary probiotics: Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, L. casei subsp. paracasei, L. planatrum, L. rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. longum sbsp. infantism, Lactococcus lactis, and Streptococcus thermophilus.  These are all considered beneficial species. But keep in mind that the human gut has hundreds of microbial species - not just the few found in probiotics.

Bottom line: Eat well after taking a course of antibiotics so as to feed beneficial microbes, and do not routinely take probiotics thinking it will help the microbes in the gut.

What was also interesting was that in the first study where healthy individuals took the probiotics (and no antibiotics), they found that the probiotic species did not colonize the gut in everyone - only some species and in some people. It's as if there is a "resistance to colonization". This resistance is perhaps what other studies show - that within one week of discontinuing probiotics, they are gone from the gut.

From Science Daily - Human gut study questions probiotic health benefits  ...continue reading "Research Suggests Not Taking Probiotics After Antibiotics"